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SYT 6172-2006 油田试井技术规范  

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ICS 75. 020 E 12 ICS 75. 020 E 12
备案号:18064—2006 Ref. No. : 18064—2006
中华人民共和国 The Peopled Republic of China 
石油天然气行业标准 Standard of Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry
SY/T 6172—2006 SY/T 6172—2006
代替 SY/T 6172—1995, SY/T 6261—1996, SY/T 6363—1998, SY/T 6533—2002, SY/T 5869—1993 Replacing   SY/T 6172—1995, SY/T 6261 — 1996, SY/T 6363—1998, SY/T 6533—2002, SY/T 586(> 1993
油田试井技术规范 Technical specification for well Testing of oilfield
2006—07 —10发布 Issued Date; 07—10—2006
2007-01-01实施 Implementation Date: 01—01—2007
国家发展和改革委员会      发布 Issued by National Development and Reform Commission, P. R. C
目 次 Contents
附录A (规范性附录)符号注释 Annex A (Normative)   Symbols annotation
前 言 Foreword
本标准由SY/T 6172--1995《油井试井技术要求》、SY/T 6261-1996《注水井压力降落资料解释分析方法h SY/T 6363—1998《不稳定试井技术要求》、SY/T 6533-2002《稳定试井测试及解释方法》和SY/T 5869—1993《自喷井井下压力常规测试》五个标准整合修订而成。此次整合修订的主要内容包括: This standard is revised on the basis of the fol?lowing five standards: SY/T 6172—1995 Technical requirements for oil well testing, SY/T 6261 1996 Interpretation method for the pressure falloff test in "water injection wells. SY/T 6363―1998 Technical requirements of transient -well test , SY/T 6533—2002 Steady well testing and its data interpretation methods, SY/T 5869—1993 Downhole pressure conventional test of flowing well. The main items of revising are as follows;
——将SY/T 6172-1995和SY/T 6363-1998中内容重复部分进行了整合、精简; 一The same articles or similar ones of SY/T 6172—1995 and SY/T 6363—1998 are incorporated and simplified;
——将上述五个标准附表中的常用公式进行了省略;  一The common used equations in the attached list are canceled;
——将上述五个标准的符号注释部分进行了合并、重写;  —The symbol annotations of the above mentioned five standards are incorporated and rewritten;
——对有关条款的内容进行了精简, 一Some other articles are simplified;
——增加了电缆作业电子压力温度测试和毛细钢管井下压力测试方面的内容。 一The downhole pressure and lemperature meassurement with electronic pressure gauge by wireline operation and the downhole pressure measurement with steel capillary pipe are superinduced to this standard
本标准由油气田开发专业标准化委员会提出并归口。 Thp standard was proposed hy The Technical committee of Standardization for Oil and Gas Field Development, it is under the jurisdiction of The Technical Committee of Standardization for Oil and Gas Field Development. 
本标准起草单位:中国石油天然气股份有限公司华北油田分公司勘探开发研究院。 The standard is drafted by the Exploration and Development Research Institute of Huabei Oil?field Company, PetroChina.
本标准起草人:盂庆春、张宗达、朱业东、张辉。 The main drafters of this standard are Meng Qingchun- Zhang Zongda, Zhu Yadong and Zhang Hui,
英文翻译主要单位:中油测井技术服务有限责任公司、大庆石油学院。本标准主要翻译人:刘能强、宋考平、张建国。 This standard is translated primarily by Liu Nengqiang from China National Logging Corp., Song Kaoping and Zhang Jianguo from Daqing Petroleum Institute.
本标准所代替标准的历次版本发布情况为: The former standards replaced by this standard are;
本标准以中文和英文两种文字出版。当英文和中文两种版本有歧义时,以中文版本为准。 This standard is published in both Chinese and English. In the event of any discrepancy between the texts, the Chinese version shall prevail
油田试井技术规范 Technical specification for well testing of oilfield
1. 范围 1  Scope
本标准规定了油田试井测试方法、资料录取和解释的技术要求。 This standard specifies the technical requirements of test method, data acquisition and interpretation of well test.
本标准适用于采油井和注水井的试井设计、录取资料要求和解释成果的应用等。 This standard is applicable to well test design, data acquisition and interpretation of oil wells and water injection wells, and the application of the interpretation results.
2. 规范性引用文件 2  Nonnative reference
下列文件中的条款通过本标准的引用而成为本标准的条款。凡是注日期的引用文件,其随后所有的修改单(不包括勘误的内容)或修订版均不适用于本标准,然而,鼓励根据本标准达成协议的各方研究是否可使用这些文件的最新版本。凡是不注日期的引用文件,其最新版本适用于本标准。 The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this standard, constitute provisions of this standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications (exclude errata) do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest e-dition of the normative document referred to ap?plies,
SY/T 5098    石油下井仪表用计时器技术条件 SY/T 5098   Technical conditions for the calculagraph used in donmhole instruments 
SY/T 5099石油下井仪器温度、压力分级及其匹配 SY/T 5099    Grading and matching of downhole imtruments according to measured temperature and pressure
SY/T 5387    常规原油油藏试采地质技术要求 SY/T 5387   Geologic technical requirements of production test in conventional oil reservoir 
SY/T 5483    常规地层测试技术规程 SY/T 5483   Technical specification of conventional formation testing
SY/T 5968    探井试油试采资料质量评定方法 SY/T 5968 Assessment methods of the data quality of well testing and production test in exploration wells
SY/T 6013    常规试油资料录取规范 SY/T 6013 Specification of data acquisition of conventional well test
SY/T 6102    油田开发监测及取资料要求 SY/T 6102   Oil field development monitoring and data requirement
3. 试井设计 3   Well test design
3.1 试井目的 3. 1   Purposes of welt test
3.1.1确定油藏的地层压力、地层温度、流动压力及流动压力梯度。 3.1.1  To determine the formation pressure, formation temperature, flowing pressure and flowing pressure gradient.
3.1.2  求取油井的产能方程和注水井吸水指数,了解油井的生产能力和注水井的吸水能力。 3.1.2  To derive the deliverEbility equation of the tested oil well, to determine the water injec-tivity index of the tested water injection well- so as to realize the productivity of the tested oil well or the injectivity of the tested water injec?tion well.
3.1.3  了解油藏的边界类型和距离,求取地层渗流特征参数,计箅动态储量。 3.1.3 To detect the type of the boundaries of the reservoir and the distances from the tested well to the boundaries;to calculate the physical characteristic parameters and the dynamic reserves of the reservoir.
3.1.4  了解地层的完善程度,为制定增产措施、评价措施效果提供依据。 3.1.4  To determine the completion factor of the tested well and to provide information for stimulation treatment and evaluation of the treatment effect,
3.1.5  分析采油井、注水井的生产状况,确定其最佳工作制度。 3.1.5  To analyze the production of the tested oil well or the injection of the tested water injec?tion well, so as to determine the optimal flow rate.
3.2 测试井、层的基础数据 3.2 Basic information of the tested well and the tested formation
3. 2.1    并的基础数据。井的基础数据包括: 地理位置; 构造位置; 井别; 油层中深; 最大井斜深度; 总方位, 倾角; 完钻日期; 完钻井深; 完井日期; 完井方式; 人工井底。 3.2.1 Basic information of the tested welh It includes: geographic location of the well; structural location of the well; the type of the well; mid-depth of the formation; the depth of the borehole where the maximum deviation appears; the azimuth of the well;dip angle of the well; finishing driiling dace; total depth of the well; completion date; completion mode;  depth of arlificial well bottom.
3.2.2 目前井身结构及生产管柱结构示意图。 3. 2. 2    The schemaiic drawings of the existing casing program and the flow string structure.
3.2.3    测试层数据。測试层数据包括: 3.2.3  Basic information of the tested formation. It concludes-
测试层的层位、层号; 解释井段; horizon and its number; interpretation interval(s);
射孔井段: 射开厚度; 储层岩性; 有效厚度; 孔隙度; 渗透率; 试油成果; perforated interval(s);thickness of the perforated interval(s); lithology of the formation; effective thickness;porosity; permeability; well test results;
试油结论及作业措施情况。 conclusion of well test and information about the operation and measures for the tested formation.
3.2.4 油水井生产情况。 3.2.4  Production information about tested oil or water-injection wells.
油井生产情况包括:生产日期;工作制度;日产量(油、气、水);含水率; Production information about tested oil wells include: production duration; working system (choke size or swabbing frequency and depth);(oil, gas, water) flow rate; water cut;
累积产量(油、气、水); (oil, gas, water) accumulative production;
压力(油压、套压、流压、静压)及上次压力测试时间。 pressure (tubing pressure, casing pressure, flowing pressure, static pressure) and the time when the pressure was measured recently.
注水井半产情况包括: Injection information of the water injection well include;
生产曰期;注人方式;泵压;油压;套压;日注水量;累积注水量。 injection duration; injection mode; pump pressure; tubing pressure; casing pressure; water- injection rate; accumulative injected water volume.
3.2.5    油井产液剖面和注水井吸水剖面。 ― 3. 2.5   Production profile of the oil wells or In?jection profile of the water Injection wells, 
3.2.6 流体物性参数。 3.2.6 Physical properties of the produced fluid.
地面流体性质包括- Surface fluid properties include:
取样井号; the sampled well name; 
取样日期; sampling date; 
原油密度; density of the oil; 
粘度; viscosity;
凝固点; freezing point;
初馏点; initial boiling point; 
含蜡量; wax content; 
含硫量;. sulfer content; 
胶质含量; colloid content of the fluid; 
地层水总矿化度。 total salinity of the formation water. 
地层流体性质包括:取样井号; Formation fluid properties include: the sampled well name;
取样日期; 分析日期; 地层压力; 地层温度; sampling date; analyzing date; formation pressure; formation temperature; 
地层原油密度;地层原油粘度;原油体积系数; reservoir oil density; reservoir oil viscosity; formation volume factor of oil; 
原油压缩系数;原始饱和压力;溶解气油比; 天然气相对密度; compressibility of oil; original bubble-point pressure; solution gas-oil ratio of the reservoir oil; relative density of natural gas; 
天然气偏差因子; 地层水粘度; 地层水体积系数; 地层水压缩系数。 deviation factor of natural gas; formation water viscosity; formation volume factor of water; compressibility of formation water.
3.3    测试时间的估算 3.3 Estimation of test duration
3.3.1 稳定试井每个测点流动达到稳定的时间,计算公式为: 3.3.1 For steady well test, the formula for estimating the flow time when the steady-state flow begins is:
稳定试井的最小测试时间应大于ts。 The shortest duiation of each flow period in steady well testing should be longer than ts. 
式(1)中以及本标准其他公式和文字涉及的物理量符号,其名称、单位等均列于附录A中。 The name, dimension of a11 the nomenclatures in equation (1), other form a be or text in this standand are listed in Annex A.
3.3.2    压力恢复(压降)测试时间估算,计算公式为- 3.3.2 The formulae for estimating the duration of pressure buildup, drawdown or falloff test are
a)压力恢复(注水井压降)测试径向流开始的时间: a) For build-up or falloff test, the time when infinite acting radial flow begins is:
最少测试时间应大于10A/b, The shortest testing duration should be longer than 10A/b
b)压降测试径向流开始的时间: b) For drawdown test, the time when infinite acting radial flow begins is:
最少测试时间应大于-10"。 The shortest testing time should be longer than 10".
c)探边测试拟稳态开始时间: c) For reservoir limit test (RLT),the time when pseudo- steady flow begins is:
最少测试时间应大于(3?4) 6?。 The shortest testing duration should be longer than 3?4 times of tpss.
3.3.3 干扰试井测试时间估算方法是确定测试流量q、激动生产时间t和压力计分辨率SP之间的关系。当g为选定流量时,&与t的关系为: 3-3.3 For interference test, the estimation of the testing duration is based on determining the relation of flow rate q,production time t of the active well during the test, and the resolution of the pressure gauges. When q is fixed, the relation between & and t is
8P选定0. 00lMPa时,最少测试时间应大于10t。 When ^p is seWtfti as 0. 001 MPa, the shortest testing time should be longer than 10 t. 
3.3.4 根据巳知的或计算的地层参数(K, p, h, 〃, ψ)进行试井模拟,模拟出压力曲线及边界特征和边界反映时间,并作预分析,再根据模拟结果确定测铽时间。 3.3.4 Perform well test simulation based on known or calculated formation parameter(k, p,h、 and ψ)to obtain the pressure history, the character of the boundaries and the time when the boundaries effect- Perform pre-analysis and determine the testing duration with the result of the simulation.
3.4    试井方法的选择 3.4 Selection of well test method
3.4.1    稳定试井方法选择。 3. 4.1    Selection of steady well test method. 
根据流动达到稳定的时间选择分析方法: Selecting the test method based on the time when steady state flow (ts) begins:
a)  当t≤10h时,采用系统试井法。 a)  perform systemic well test if t≤10h;
b)  当≥10h时,采用等时试井或修正等时试井法。 b)  perform isochronal well test or modified isochronal well test if t>10 h.
3.4.2 不稳定试井方法选择。 3.4.2   Selection of transient well test method.
3.4.2.1 单井试井方法选择:单井试井包括压力恢复、压力降落和变流量测试,可根据测试目的和生产条件选择。 3.4.2.1 Selection of single well test method ; Single well test includes pressure build-up, pressure drawdown and multi-rate test. The test method can be selected according to the purpose of the test and the production conditions. 
应优先选择关井测压力恢复(注水井压力回落〉,关停并优先选择压力降落。在某些特殊条件下可考虑选择变流量的方法取得不稳定压力数据。 Preferentially select shut-in well to perform pressure build-up test (or pressure falloff test for water injection well). For the well which has been shut-in or stopped producing, preferentially select pressure drawdown test. Under some special conditions, multi-rate test method could be selected to acquire transient pressure data 
3.4.2.2 多井试井方法选择:多井试井包括干扰试井和脉冲试井,主要是为了确定井间的连通情况,可根据实际条件来选择。   3.4.2.2 Selection of multi-well test method: Multi-well test includes interference test and pulse test; it is generally used to determine connectivity between wells. Test method should be chosen by actual conditions,
4. 试井操作规范 4   Operation specificaticm for well test
4.1    钢丝作业机械压力计压力、温度测试 4.1  Pressure and temperature measurement with mechanical pressure gauge run by wireline 
4.1.1适用范围: 4.1.1 Range of application
钢丝起下作业的机械压力计,适用于油水井流压静压及其梯度、流温静温、压力恢复或压力降落等常规测试。 Mechanical pressure gauge run by wireline applies to measuring flowing pressure, static pressure and their gradient, flowing temperature, static temperature; pressure building-up, pressure drawdown and other conventional tests in oil wells or water wells. 
4.1.2 测试仪器。 4,1.2  Test instruments
4.1.2.1  压力计技术指标应符合SY/T 5098, SY/T 5099的有关规定。 4.1, 2.1 The technical specification of the pres?sure gauge must accord with the regulations in the standards SY/T 5098 and SY/T 5099 . 
4.1.2.2  仪器应按规定及时校准,以保证測试的成功和所取资料的准确。 4.1, 2, 2 The instruments must be calibrated periodically according to correlative regulations in order to ensure the test being successful and the acquired data being accurate 
4.1.3 测试井。 4.1.3   Well to be tested
4.1.3.1 测压井的生产情况稳定,测前三天内日产量或日注量波动不超过平均量的±5%。 4.1.3.1 The production must be stable, the fluctuation of the flow rate or the water injection rate in the duration of 3 days just before the test should be within ± 5 % of the average.
4.1.3.2  井口设备无渗漏,阀门安装齐全,启闭灵活. 4.1.3.2 There is no leakage on wellhead assembly, and the valves on which are all installed and function properly.
4.1.3.3  井下管柱结构淸楚,并具备獮压仪器顺利起下的条件。 4.1.3.3  The structure of the downhole string should be clearly known and available for run?ning the measurement instruments in and pull them out of the hole successfully.
4.1.3.4 井口扒杆安装应垂直、稳固,滑轮应转动灵活,并保证录井钢丝对准井口。 4.1.3.4  The gin pole on the wellhead must be installed vertically and firmly, the pulleys must be able to run smoothly and ensure the logging wireline centering in the well bore
4.1.4 测试技术要求。 4.1.4 Requirement of testing technique 
4.1. 4. 1    压力计最大压力量程Pm按式(6)选取 4. 1. 4.1   The maximum range of measurement of pressure gauge, Pm, is determined by following equation
4.1.4.2    压力计精确度不低于0.5%。 4. 1. 4. 2 The accuracy of the pressure gauge must be higher than 0.5%, 
4.1.4.3 根据试井设计及待测井起下速度选择好压力计所用时钟。 4.1.4.3 Select proper clocks used in pressure gauges according to the well test design and the velocity of running in and pulling out the gauges in the well to be tested.
4.1.4.4  根据井下管柱结构状况,压力计下到油层中部或接近油层中部的位置。 4.1. 4.4 Run the pressure gauges into the hole at the mid-depth of the tested zone(s) or as closer to it as possible according to the structure of downhole string. 
测井筒压力或温度梯度间隔规定为100m,要求停梯度点时间不小于10min,梯度测点不少于3个。 The pressure gradient (or temperature gradient) measurement must be done by measuring one pressure (or temperature) point per hundred meters, measuring duration at each point must not be less than 10 min, and measuring points must be 3 or more. 
4.1.4.5 长期停产井测压时,应短时间放喷后再关井.关井时间应大于放喷时间4倍。 4.1.4.5 For the well which has been stopped producing for a long time, it is necessary to flow the well for a short time before shutting in to measure its pressure, and the shut-in duration should be longer than 4 times of the flowing time.  
4.1.4.6 关井测压过程中应严格检查井口是否存在渗漏现象。井口应安装油压表。 4.1.4.6 In the period of shutting-in for pressure measuring, wellhead must be checked-up strictly to ensure that there is no leakage. Tubing pressure gauge should be installed on wellhead.
4.1.5 测压原始资料质量要求。 4.1.5  Quality requirement of the raw data of pressure measurement
4.1.5.1 原始报表及现场施工记录填写要求齐全准确。 4.1. 5.1 The raw data reports and the wellsite operation records must be filled in completely and accurately.
4.1.5.2  测试卡片基线平直(偏差小于0.2mm),不双不弯;曲线清晰,无明显台阶,时钟走时正常,量程适当;梯度停点平稳,台阶淸楚,台阶宽度不小于2.0mm;两张卡片曲线形态相同,读出相同点压力差值应符合压力计精度要求, 4. 1. 5. 2 The baseline of the pressure recording chart must be flat and straight (its warp must be less than 0. 2 mm),and must not be bended or become a dual-line; the recorded pressure curve must be clear without any obvious steps. The clock must run normally and the range of it must be adequate. The calibrated gradient points must be stable and the calibrated gradient steps clear. The calibrated gradient steps must be wider than 2.0 mm. The shapes of two recording charts from different gauges must be consistent; and their readings for the same pressure point must meet the accuracy requirement of the gauges.
4.1.5.3  测试卡片应无污损、破裂、褶皱及划破等现象,线条宽度不大于0.2mm,图形位置居中。 4.1.5.3   The test recording chart must not be defiled or cracked or rugate or lacerate. The width of the recording line must be less than 0.2 mm and the figure centered on the chart. 
4.1.5.4 测试卡片记录时间应与报表时间相符,10h时钟误差小于10min; 30h时钟误差小于20min, 50h时钟误差小于30min。 4.1.5.4 The time recorded on the recording chart and that recorded in the report must be consistent; the time error between them must be less than 10 min for 10hr clock; less than 20 min for 30hr clock; and less than 30 min for 50hr clock. 
卡片上方空白处标明井号、测试日期、压力计编号及下入深度。 The well name, test date* serial number and the setting depth of the pressure gauges must be labeled on the blank part of the chart.
4.1.6 测试资料整理、计算及初步解释。 4.1.6  Process, calculation and primary interpretation of the test data
4.1.6.1 对合格的测试成果,按卡片测量、应变一压力换算、成果报表填写的流程对测试资料进行整理及计算。 4.1.6.1 For qualified test results, process and calculation must be conducted in the following sequence: scanning the recording chart, calculating the pressure from the strain and filling-in the test report.
4.1.6.2 在应变一压力换算中,压力校验曲线上,校验应变与温度的关系曲线不得少于三条,且要求最高温度线应适合使用地区的油层最髙温度。 4.1.6.2 On the pressure calibration curves for calculating the pressure from the strain, there must be at least 3 relation curves of strain vs. temperature; and the maximum temperature of them must fit the maximum temperature of the reservoir in the area where testing is conducted.
4.1.6.3  在采油井关井测压力恢复或注水井关井测压力回落的应变一压力换算中,使用l0h时钟的读点可按0.5min, lmin,2min,5min,l0min,20min选点,30min以后可每隔20min?50min读一个点,曲线的最后一个点一定要读。 4.1.6.3 When calculating the pressure from the strain for build-up test in production wells or fall-off test in water injection wells, if 10 hr clock was used, reading points on the recording chart should be selected as: 0.5 min, 1 min, 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min; from then on read one datum every 20min?50min,and the last point of the recorded pressure curve must be read. 
特殊井曲线读点要适当加密,曲线异常部分也要加密。 The intervals between reading points should be smaller for the abnormal part (s) or the special wells. 
使用100h时钟的,在16mm应变以前毎0.1mm读一个点,16mm以后每0.5mm或1mm读一个点。 If 100 hr clock is used, reading points must be as dense as one reading per 0.1 mm before 16 mm of the strain, and one reading per 0.5 mm or 1 mm afterward. 
4.1.6.4  输人实测压力一时间关系数据,运用试井解释软件作常规或现代试井的初步分析解释。 4.1.6.4 Input measured data of pressure vs. time, then perform primary interpretation with conventional or modern well test interpretaticm methods with well test interpretation software. 
4.2    电缆作业电子压力计压力、温度测试 4.2 Pressure and temperature measurement with electronic pressure gauge run by wireline 
4.2.1  适用范围。 4.2.1 Range of application
4.2.1.1  有条件的情况下要选择电子压力计测试。对于髙产、高压、高温等复杂或重点井应采用地面直读式电子压力计测试,以确保资料的精度和测试的成功。 4.2.1.1  Electronic pressure gauges should be chosen to test the well if it is possible. In order to ensure accurate data acquisition and success of the test, surface read out electronic pressure gauge must be chosen to test the high-productivity wells, high pressure or/and high temperature wells or other complicated or important wells.
4.2.1.2 钢丝作业的井下存储式电子压力计的测试可参照4. 1的内容及有关规定。 4.2.1.2  The pressure measurement with downhole memory electronic gauges run by wireline refers to Article 4.1 in this chapter and concerned specifications.
4.2.1.3 电子压力计的精度等级目前分为三类: 4. 2. 1. 3   At present, according to their accuracy, electronic pressure gauges are graded into 3 levels: 
第一类:全量程的0.01%~0.025%; The first grade: the accuracy is within 0.01% - 0.025% of the full stair;
第二类:全量程的0.04%?0.07%, The  second  grade:the  accuracy  is within 0.04% - 0.07% of the full scale; 
第三类:全量程的0.1%?0.3%。 The third grade:the accuracy is within 0.1% - 0.3% of the full scale.
其分辨率、稳定度以及量程等有各自相应的指标,在选择时应考虑以下原则- There are corresponding specifications about resolution, stability and range of electronic pressure gauges. Following principles must be considered when choosing the gauges:
a)  对于一般油水井流压流温及其梯度、静压静温及其梯度,压力恢复或压力降落等常规测试, 如需降低成本,选用第三类精度等级的电子压力计。 a)  For conventional tests such as measurement of flowing pressure, flowing temperature and their gradients, static pressure, static temperature and their gradients, pressure build-up and drawdown of oil wells or water wells, and if reducing the cost of the test must be considered, the third grade gauges can be chosen to perform the test;
b)  对于探边测试以及干扰测试、脉冲测试,要求压力计在井下工作时间长、存储容量大、稳定性好,优先选择第一类精度等级的电子压力计,某些第二类精度等级的电子压力计也可达到这些要求。 b)  For the interference tests, pulse tests or reservoir limit test, it is required that the pressure gauges work downhole for a long time and possess a large memory and good stability, so the first grade gauges should be primary chosen; some second grade gauges can also be chosen if they are able to meet the above requirements;
c)  对于压力梯度测试,要求压力计响应时间短、分辨率高,优先选择石英晶体或硅一蓝宝石为压力传感器的电子压力计(第二类)。 c)  For pressure gradient test, it is required that the gauges response the pressure change very quickly and possess very high resolution, the second grade pressure gauges with quartz or silicon - sapphire sensor should be chosen primary to meet the above requirements;
d)  对于高温、高压井或超深井的测试,选择第一或第二类精度等级且量程高,能满足要求的电子压力计。 d)  For the test in high pressure or/and high temperature wells or in overdeep wells, the first or second grade electronic gauges possessing a wide range and being able to meet the requirements should be chosen.
4.2.1.4对于待測压井的要求与机械压力计测试相类似.见SY/T5483的规定。 4.2.1. 4 Requirements of the tested wells are similar to those in the case of measuring with mechanical pressure gauges. Refer to the regula?tions in SY/T 5483. 
4.2.2  测试技术要求。 4.2.2 Requirements of test technique 
4. 2. 2.1 所选井下仪器的额定工作压力应高于井下最高压力3.45MPa,仪器及电池额定工作温度应高于井下最高温度10C。或按被测井压力变化介于压力计全量程30%~80%的原则选用压力计。 4. 2. 2.1 The rated working pressure of the downhole pressure gauges to be used must be 3.45MPa higher than the maximum downhole pressure of the tested well. The rated working temperature of the downhole gauges and the batteries to b? used must be 10C higher than the maximum downhole temperature. The pressure gauges can also be chosen this way; the whole range of the downhole prpssure of the tested well is between 30% and 80% of the full scale of the gauges.
4.2.2.2  对选用的仪器应在有效的校准周期内,按规定进行使用前的保养,下井前应检验合格。 4.2.2.2 Pressure gauges can only be used in the period of validity of its last calibration, must be mainlained befoie being u&txl and pass strict check - up before being run inio the hole.
4.2.2.3  下人深度、起下过程中停台阶点的次数及时间以及开关井或改变工作制度等,按测试设计的规定进行,并根据现场实际测试情况进行调整。 4.2.2.3 The setting depths, steps and stay durations at each step in the hole during running-in and palling-out, flow or shut-in the well or change the choke must be conducted according to the test design, and must be adjusted according to the actual circumstance during the test. 
4.2.2.4  根据资料解释的需要,凋整录取资料的速度、数量及范围。 4.2.2.4 The sampling rate, the amount and the range of the data acquisition must be adjusted according IO the requirement of data interpretation.
4.2.2.5    按SY/T 5483规定的直读测试作业程序和规则进行测试作业,确保现场测试的安全与成功。 4.2.2.5 In order to ensure the lest being performed safely and successfully, all test operations must be conducted according to the. procedure and regulation of well test with surface read out system defined in the operation specification SY/T 5483.
4.2.3  测试原始资料质量要求。 4.2.3   Quality requirement of raw test data
4.2.3.1 压力计精确度要求对流、静压测试要达到0.3% (FS),稳定试井、产能试井、压力恢复、压力降落试井要达到0.09% (FS),探边测试、干扰测试和脉冲测试要达到0.05% (FS)。 4, 2. 3, 1 丁he accuracy of the pressure gauges must be 0, 2 % of the full scale for measuring the flowing pressure or static pressure; 0. 09 % of the full scale for steady test, deliversbility test, pressure build- up test or drawdown test; 0. 05 % of the full scale for interference test or pulse test.
4.2.3.2  现场施工人员提供的数据磁盘要有效.解释人员能读出测试数据,数据内容依次为序号、测试日期、测试时间、相对时间、实測压力、实测温度。 4.2.3.2 The dala disk provided by well test team muse be valid, and from which interpreter can read all the data acquired during the test. The content of data must consist of and in order of sequence number, test date, test time, e lapsed timet measured pressure and measured 26 temperature.
4. 2.3.3 测试数据完整,所绘压力一时间曲线清晰光滑,如测试数据有异常突变和数据缺失等情况,需要明确说明。 4,2,3,3 The data acquired during the test mus: be complete* the curve of pressure vs, time must be clear and smooth; if any al>nurmal variation happened or any data were lostT it must be explained specially and clearly. 
4.2.3.4 对于压力计下不到油层中部深度的井,按试井设计中的要求测取压力、温度梯度资料;要求停梯度台阶点的时间不少于lOmin,釆样速率不小于每分钟一个点,测梯度点至少停留3个以上不同深度点。 4.2.3.4 For the wells in which pressure gauges can not be run into at the mid-depth of tested formation, pressure gradient and temperature gradient must be measured according to the requirement of well test design, and the stay duration of each step for gradient measurement must be longer than 10 min; the sampling rate must be more than one datum per min and the gradient steps must be more than three at different depth.
4.2.3.5 测试过程中改变工作制度(包括开关井、更换油嘴等)时,采样时间间隔如下: 4.2.3.5 When working system is changed (including flow or shut-in the well, or change the choke size etc.);during the test, the sampling rate should be as following :
a)  改变工作制度前15min为3s?5s? a)  one datum in 3?5 sec within 15 min before changing working system.
b)  改变工作制度后: b)  after changing working system,
1)  0min—5min为3s?5s; 1)  one datum in 3?5 sec within 5 min from changing the working system;
2)  5min以上至lOmin为30s; 2)  one datum in 30 sec between die 5th min and the 10th min after clianging the working system;
3)  lflmin以上至lh为Imin; 3)  one datum in 1 min between the 10th min and the 1 st hr after changing the woridng system;
4)  lh以上至l0h为5min; 4)  one datum in 5 min between the 1st hr and the 10th hr after chaining the working system;
5)  10h以上为10min。 5)  one datum in 10 min from the lOtK hr after chaining the working system.
对于试井设计中有采样密度规定的,按试井设计采样。 And, if sampling rate is spentfipd in the well test design, conduct just as the specification in the design.
4.2.3.6 存储式压力计串联测试时,几支压力计之间所测差值不超过0.02MPa。 4.1 i, 6    When several memory pressure gat^es are run in tandem? the measured result difference of them should be less than 0, 02 Mpa.
4.3  毛细钢管井下压力测试 4.3   Downhole pressure test with steel capillary tube
4.3.1 对于沙漠、海上的复杂井、超深井,普通的试井测试很难录取到准确资料的井,或压力计通常难以下到油层中部等有特殊情况的重点髙产井,可使月毛细钢管井下监测设备。 4,3.1 For complicated or over deep wells located in desert or offshore, or the wells whose accurate data are very difficult to be acquired by ordinary well test methods, or the high yield wells in which pressure gauges are very difficult to be run into the mid-depth of the formation or there are some special problems, steel capillary tube downhole monitoring equipment can be used to conduct the test.
4.3.2 由于设备单井费用较髙,主要使用在现有合适电源环境、能保证地面设备安全的水平井、大斜度井、高压、髙温等常规监测设备风险系数较大的井,以及高产井或有特殊监测需要的井。 4.3.2 Because of considerable high individual-well expenditure of the equipment, steel capillary tube downhole pressure test is mainly used in horizontal wells, serious deviated slant wells, high pressure or/end high temperature wells or other wells in which the risk of using ordinary monitoring equipment is serious, and the above mentioned wells locate where there is power supply available and the surface equipment can be used safely.
4.3.3 该设备压力变送器的及时校准及维护,数据录取等要求与电子压力计测试相类似。 4.3. 3 The requirements of calibration and ma?intenance of the steel capillary tube downhole pressure measurement system and li^ pressure transmitter, and the requirements of data acqui?sition are similar to those respectively in the case of measuring with electronic pressure gauge.
5    油井稳定试井 5   Steady well test for oil wells
5.1稳定试井测试方法 5.1   Test method of steady well test 
5.1.1 试井原理 5.1.1  Principle of steady well test
稳定试井是通过规定的测试和解释程序预测储层的生产能力和注人能力的大小,这一能力由井的稳定流量与压差关系表示。 Steady well test is conducted by normative tests and data interpretation to predict the productivi?ty or injectivity of the tested reservoir* which is indicated by the relation between the steady flow rate and the corresponding pressure difference. 
5.1.2 采油井稳定试并测试方法 5.1. 2 Method of steady well test 
5.1.2.1 确定工作制度 5. 1, 2, 1 Determination of the working systpm: 
稳定试井需要在3个或3个以上的不同工作制度下测取井的地面稳定流量及对应的稳定井底压力。流量和压力的波动范围在5%以内即可视为稳定。 Steady well test requires measuring the stable surface flow rates and corresponding stable downhole flowing pressures of the tested well under 3 or more different working systems. Being stable here means that the fluctuations of both flow rate and flowing pressure are less than 5%.
根据试井设计确定工作制度及测点分布,每一工作制度应取得3个?4个测点的井底压力及产量数据。 Working systems and measuring point (i. e. downhole pressure and their corresponding oil flow rate) distribution must be determined according to the well test design. 3?4 measuring points must be measured for each working system.
5.1.2.2   测试程序 5.1. 2. 2   Test procedure:
测试前先测得稳定的地层压力,按流量由小到大依次改变工作制度,每个工作制度要保持大致相等的时间间隔、测得稳定的产量、流压等有关数据,最后一个工作制度测试结束后关井测压力恢复或静压。 Measure the stable formation pressure before the test, then change working system from low flow rate to high gradually, flow the well for nearly equal duration under each working system, measure stable flow rate and stable flowing pressure under each working system, and after finishing flow under the last working system, shut-in the well to build-up the pressure or to measjre the static pressure.
5.1.3 注水井指示曲线测试方法 5.1.3 Test method of indicative curve of water injection well
5.1.3.1    视指示曲线測试方法 5.1.3.1 Test method of apparent indicative curve-
采用注人量逐步减少的顺序测试。 Adopt the test sequence of decreasing injection rates step by step. 
测试前应在最髙压力下放大注水量注水8h,第一点选用最髙压力的注水量,改变工作制度,测其余各点。需测3个或3个以上工作制度,每一工作制度应达到注人量和井口压力稳定。 Before testing, increasing water injection rate under the maximum injeccion pressure for 8 hr, measure the stable injection rate and the wellhead injection pressure which are used as the first measurement. Change the working systems 3 or more times, corresponding stable injection rates and wellhead injection pressures of each working system must be measured.
分层注水井的各层视指示曲线测试方法与全井视指示曲线相同,但需要根据井下配水管柱的不同,做好分层注水量的计算和核实。 The test method of apparent indicative curve of each layer of zonal injection well is just the same as that of the indicative curve of whole well, but the injection rate in each layer must be calculated and checked according to different downhole water distribution string,
5.1.3.2 真指示曲线测试方法 5.1.3.2 Test method of true indicative curve 
在井下测试注水井稳定流压及对应的地面注水量,获得真指示曲线。 Measure the stable downhole injection flowing pressure and corresponding wellhead injection rate and obtain the true indicative curve. 
也可以通过井下流动压力考虑水柱压力和管损等求得吸水层的注人流压,从而在木实测流压的条件下作出真指示曲线。 The true indicative curve can also be obtained under the condition of without measuring the downhole flowing pressure this way: calculate the downhole injection flowing pressure from the 21 wellhead injection pressure by adding the pressure of the water column and the pressure loss in the tubing* and then plot the true indicative curve.
5.2 稳定试井录取资料要求 5.2  Requirement of data acquisition for steady well test
5.2.1 采油井稳定试井录取资料要求 5.2.1 Requirement of data acquisition for steady well test in oil producing wells
5.2.1.1 探井及试采井 5. 2. 1.1    For exploration wells and production test wells:
有生产能力的探井及试采并在试油及试采期间都应取得稳定试井资料,录取资料按SY/T 5387, SY/T 5968及SY/T 6013的规定执行。 Steady well test data should be acquired during well test or pilot production for exploration wells and pilot production wells with productivity; and the data should be acquired according to SY/T 5387, SY/T 5968 and SY/T 6013. 
5.2.1.2 采油井 5.2.1.2 For oil producing wells: 
按开发方案投产的生产井可根据生产情况及开发动态分析结果确定是否进行稳定试井,录取资料按SY/T 6102执行。 For the oil wells which were put into production according to development plan, whether steady well test is performed or not should be deter?mined on the base of their production and per?formance analysis results;  and the test data should be acquired according to SY/T 6102. 
5.2.2 注水井稳定试井录取资料要求 5.2.2  Requireimit of data acquisition for steady well test in water injection wells
投注初期每口注水井都应测一次全井或分层的视指示曲线,以后应根据需要安排全井或分层的视指示曲线的测试。录取资料按SY/T 6102的规定执行。 Apparent indicative curve of whole well or individual layer must be obtained by steady well test for each water injection well during the initial stage of putting on injection, and then re-test if necessary. The test data should be acquired according to SY/T 6102.
5.3 稳定试井资料处理 5.3  Processing of steady well test data 
5.3.1 稳定试井曲线 5.3.1  The steady well test curve
稳定试井资料应整理出以下曲线- Following curves should be plotted from the steady well test data:
采油井指示曲线:生产压差与产量的关系曲线; the indicative curve of oil production wells : the plot of flow rate vs producing pressure differential;
采油井系统试井曲线,产量、流压、含水率、含砂量、气油比等与工作制度的关系曲线; the systematic well test curve of oil production wells:the plot of flow rate, flowing pressure, water cut, sand cut and gas-oil ratio (GOR) vs choke size (or other working system);
流入动态曲线(IPR曲线):流压与产量关系曲线; the inflow performance relationship curve (IPR):the plot of flow rate vs flowing pressure;
注水井全井及分层指示曲线或视指示曲线。 the indicative curve or apparent indicative curve of the whole well or individual layer of water injection wells. 
5.3.2 绘制试井曲线时地层压力的处理 5.3.2 Determination of reservoir pressure for drawing steady well test curve 
当稳定试井在测试前后测得的两个地层压力?R1和/^的差值在测压误差范围内时,所有工作制度可取同一个地层压力值。 If the two reservoir pressures measured before and after steady well testing, />K1 and pj^, are similar and within the error limit of the measurement, the same reservoir pressure value can be used for all choke sizes (or other working systems).
当上述的?>R1和/^差值超过测压误差时,除第一个工作制度取值、最后一个工作制度取pfe 值外,其余工作制度的地层压力由式(7)确定: If the difference between pRi and defined a-bove exceeds the error limit of the measurement, />RI is used as the reservoir pressure value for the first choke (or the first working system) , is used as the reservoir pressure value for the last choke (or the last working system), and the other reservoir pressure values, 9 should be determined by (7);
5.3.3 采油井指示曲线 5. 3.3   Indicative curve of production well
油井指示曲线分以下4类:直线型(如图1曲线i所示)、曲线型(如图1曲线n所示)、混合型(如图1曲线m所示)和异常型(如图1曲线iv所示)。利用上述指示曲线可以分析油井的流动状况。 Hie indicative curves of oil production wells are classified as 4 types: straight line type (I in Fig. 1), curve type (II in Fig. 1),mixed type (III in Fig. 1) and abnormal type (IV in Fig.1). From the indicative curves the flow situation can be analyzed.
5.3.4 采油井系统试井曲线 5.3.4 Systematic well test curve of oil production wells
典型的采油井系统拭井曲线如图2所示,利用该曲线确定采油井的合理工作制度。 Typical systematic well test curves of oil production wells look like Fig.2. From the systematic well test curves the rational flow rate (the reasonable choke or working system) can be determined.
5.3.5 呆油井流入动态曲线(IPR曲线) 5. 3. 5 Inflow performance relationship curve (IPR) of oil producing wells
图3是不同地层压力条件下的采油井流人动态曲线,用于采油井产能预测。 Fig. 3 is the IPR of oil producing wells at different reservoir pressures, it is used to predict the flow rate of the oil well,
5.3.6 注水井视指示曲线 5.3.6 Apparent indicative curve of water injection wells
注水井全井视指示曲线通常分为直线型和析线型。 The whole well apparent indicative curve of a water injection well is classified as 2 types: straight line type and polygonal straight line type. 
分层视指示曲线分为'直线型.折线型及垂直型(如图4、图5、图6所示)。 The individual layer apparent indicative curve of a water injection well is classified as 3 types: straight line type, polygonal straight line type and vertical line type (Fig. 4, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6) . 
在利用指示曲线分析吸水能力及判断井下工具工作状况时需将同一井、层不同时间的指示曲线画在同一图上,以便对比分析。 When analyzing the water injectivity and diagnosing the working situation of the downhole instrument by indicative curves, the indicative curves of the same layer of the same well but tested in different time should be drawn onto the same plot for comparison.
5.4 稳定试井资料的定性解释方法 5.4 The qualitative interpretation method of steady well lest data
5.4.1 采油井指示曲线 5. 4.1   Tht indicative curve af producing well
按采油井指示曲线的类型做以下定性解释: Qualitative interpretation should be conducted according to their different types,
a)  直线型:特征为过原点的直线(如图1曲线I所示)。一般是较小生产压差条件的单相渗流形成的。 a)  Straight line type: The characteristic of this type is a straight line through the origin (I in Fig. 1). It appears usually in the case of single -phase flow under small producing pressure differential
b)  曲线型:特征为过原点凸向产量轴的曲线(如图1曲线II所示)。这类曲线一般反映了单相非达西或油气两相渗流的流动特点,在较大生产压差或流压小丁饱和压力时形成。 b)  Curve type: The characteristic of this type is a curve through the origin and protruded towards flow rate axis (II in Fig.1)- This type of curve usually reflects the flowing characteristic of single-phase and non-Darcy flow or Two-phase (oil and gas) flow T and it appears when the producir^ pressure differential is quite big or the flowing pressure is lower than saturation pressure.
c)  混合型:特征为先是过原点的直线,然后紧接着是凸向产量轴的曲线(如1曲线III所示)。 c)  Mixed type: The characteristic of this type is that the curve is firstly a straight line through the origin and then a curve protruded towards How rate axis (III in Fig.1). 
直线部分为单相达西渗流,曲线部分包括单相非达西渗流及油气两相渗流等。 The straight line of it reflects single-phase Dacry flow, and the curve part reflects single-phase non-Darcy flow and two-phase (oil and gas) flow and so on.
d)  异常型:特征为过原点凸向压力轴的曲线(如图1曲线IV所示)。 d)  Abnormal type:The characteristic of this type is a curve through the origin and protruded towards pressure axis (IV in Fig 1). 
产生该类曲线的原因包括测试工作制度未达稳定、新井井壁污染在测试过程中逐渐下降,以及随着生产压差的增大有新的层位投入生产等。 Appearing of this type of curve may be due to that the test flow rate and/or flowing pressure ( working system) didn't become stable during the test, that the damage of a new well was gradually eliminating during the test, and that as the increasing of producing pressure differential some new layers began to produce oil and so on. 
因而异常曲线并非一定是不存在的,应根据实际情况具体分析,若为测试未达稳定所致,则应重测。 The abnormal curve probably appears in practice, and when it does, analysis based on the actual situation must be done and if it is really caused by unstable flow rate and/or flowing pressure during the test, the well must be re-tested again.
5.4.2注水并全井视指示曲线 5.4.2  Apparent indicative curve of whole well of water injection well
按注水井全井视指示曲线的类型做以下定性解释: Following qualitative interpretation should be conducted according to their different types:
a)  直线型:特征为一斜率大于零的直线,不一定过原点(如图4所示)。反映某一渗透层占的比例较大或某一单层为主要吸水层的情况。渗透率高时直线偏近注水量轴,反之偏近井口压力轴。 a)  Straight line type: The characteristic of this type is a straight line with positive slope, and it is not necessary to pass through the origin (Fig. 4). It reflects that the proportion of injection in one layer preponderates over others,or one layer is the main water absorbing layer. If the permeability of the layer is high, the line lies closer to water injection axis, contrarily closer to wellhead pressure axis.
b)  折线型:折线(向下)型(如图5曲线I所示)反映注水压力增大到一定程度之后,注水量和吸水指数都随压力增大。 b)  Polygonal straight line type; Downwards polygonal straight line type ( upper one in Fig.5) reflects that both water injection rate and injeclivity index increase as pressure increases after water injection pressure has increased to a certain value. 
原因有:吸水层数增多、某些吸水层的注水压力达到该层的破裂压力以及吸水层的非均质等。 The reasons include that water absorbing layers increases, that the water injection pressure reaches the fracture pressure of some water absorbing layers, and that the water absorbing layers are helerogeneous and so on.
折线(向上)型(如图5曲线II所示)反映地层堵塞增加,吸水层减少或吸水层渗透书下降等原因。 Upwards polygonal straight line type (lower one in Fig. 5) reflects that formation damage is increasing, water absorbing layers are de?creasing or the permeability of water absorbing layers is becoming lower and so on.
5.4.3    注水井分层视指示曲线 5.4.3  Apparent indicative curve of individual layer of water injection well
按注水井分层视指示曲线的类型做以下定性解释: Following qualitative interpretation should be conducted according to their different types:
a)  直线型:反映地层吸水量与注水压力成线性关系(如图4所示)。在层段内吸水层位较少、注人压力小于破裂压力的情况下常出现这一情况。 a)  Straight line type: It reflects that the formation water-intake rate is linear with the water injection pressure (Fig.4).It appears quite often when water absorbing layers in the injection interval are not many and injection pressure is lower than fracture pressure.
b)  折线(向下)型:反映注水压力升高到某一值时,油层的吸水能力开始增强,或注水层段中增加了新的吸水层(如图5曲线I所示)。 b)  Downwards polygonal straight line type; It reflects that the water absorbing capacity of oil formations begins to increase or some new water absorbing layers in water injection interval start working (curve I of Fig. 5) when the water injection pressure has risen to a certain value
c)  折线(向上)型:在水嘴直径较小、油层吸水能力较强的情况下发生(如图5曲线II所示)。 c)  Upwards polygonal straight line type: It appears when the diameter of the water nozzle is small and the water absorbing capacity of the formation is strong (curve II of Fig. 5). 
原因是注水压力增高使水嘴嘴损增大.导致注水量增加缓慢。 The reason is that the increasing of water injection pressure makes the friction resistance of the water nozzle more serious, which leads the water injection rate to increase slowly.
d)  垂直S:在油层吸水能力强、水嘴直径小(不大于2mm)的情况卜-.容^测得此类视指示曲线(如图6所示)。反映随注水压力的增加,嘴损也相应增加,而注水量变化不大。 d)  Vertical Hne typei This type of apparent indic?ative curve appears often when the oil layer has strong water absorbing capacity and the diameter of water nozzle is very small (smaller than 2mm; Fig. 6). It reflects that the fric?tion resistance of the nozzle increases as the injection pressure increases and that the change of water injection rate is not serious.
5.5单相流动试井资料的定量解释方法 5.5   Quantitative interpretation methods of well test with single phase flow 
5.5.1 直线型指示曲线 5.5.1 Linear type indicative curve 
对于直线型指示曲线或混合型指示曲线的直线部分,可以计算采油指数J.、油层渗透率K和地层压力Pr,计算方法如下- From the linear type indicative curve or the linear part of mixed type indicative curve, productivity index J。, reservoir permeability K and reservoir pressure pR can be calculated, and the calculation methods are as follows : 
a)采油指数。在直线上任取一试点,则采油指数?/。为: a)Productivity index- Take any point on the straight line, productivity index J。 is:
b)油层渗透率。利用求得的采油指数J。,由拟稳态流方程可求得储层平均渗透率K为: b) Reservoir permeability. Using the calculated productivity index Ja, average reservuir per-meability K can be obtained from the pseudosteady - state flowing equation;
对于部分钻开的块状油藏,用采油指数J。计算储层平均渗透率B才应考虑钻开程度不完善对产量的影响。 If partial completion occurred in a massive oil pool, its effect to the flow rate should be considered when calculating the average reservoir permeatility by using productivity index J0 - 
在这种情况下,可用以下的Muskat (麦斯凯特)公式计算储层的平均渗透率: In this case, average reservoir permeability can be calculated by the following Muskat's equation.
c)地层压力。对指示曲线直线部分,根据式(8)整理成, c) Reservoir pressure. For the linear part of the indicative carve, rewrite equation (8) as
当q趋于零时,可外推估算地层压力Pr。 Reservoir pressure Pr can be obtained by extrap?olation as q tends to zero. 
5.5.2    曲线型指示曲线 5.5.2 Curvilinear indicative curve 
对于油藏流体为单相非达西渗流时,曲线型指示曲线可用二项式表示: When the flow of single-phase liquid is non-Darcy flow in the reservoir, curvilinear indicative curve can be expressed by a binomial equation
由此可以计算地层有效渗透率K.非达西流动系数D,湍流系数/3以及任一流压下的产量q,计算力法如下: From this equation all of the reservoir permeability K, the non-Darcy flow coefficient D, the turbulence coefficient p and the flow rate q。 at any certain flowing pressure can be calculated, and the calculation formulae are as follows:
a)油层渗透率- a)  Reservoir permeability:
b)非达西流动系数: b)  Non-Darcy flow coefficient :
c)湍流系数(或紊流系数): c)  Turbulence coefficient : 
d)任一流压;M下的产量&: d)  Flow rate q0 at any certain flowing pressure
式(18〉的条件是地层压力pR在试井期间保持不变。若/^为油井最小自喷流压,则此式可求出油井的最大自喷产量。 It is similar to the exponential deliverability e-quation of gas wells, and can also be used to de?termine the flow rate at any certain (lowing pres?sure.
5. 5.3    混合型指示曲线 5.5.3 Mixed type indicative curve
可分解为直线型和曲线型两部分求解井和地层参数'  This curve can be divided into linear and curvilinear parts to calculate parameters of well and formation.
5.6 油气两相流动试井资料的定量解释方法 5.6 Quantitative interpretation methods of two-phase flowing well test data
5.6.1 地层压力低于饱和压力条件下的稳定试井解释 5.6.1 Steady well test interpretation on the condition of reservoir pressure being lower than saturation pressure
5.6.1.1   Vogel (沃格)方程 5.6.1.1   Vogel equation:
当油藏流体为油气两相时,可以用Vugd方程整理稳定试井资料。Vogel方程为: When reservoir liquid is two-phases, i.e. oil-phase and gas-phase,Vogel equation can be used to process steady well test data. Vogel equation is:
由式(19)表尔的曲线亦称IPR曲线,即流人动态曲线,可用于求出任一流压下的产油量g。 The curve drawn from (19) is also called inflow performance relationship curve (IPR) ,and it can be used to determine the flow rate qQ at any certain flowing pressure g^.
5.6.1.2   Fetkovich (费特科维奇 > 方程 5.6.1.2   Fetkovich equation;
该方程与气井的指数方程类似,其表达式为xxxx,该式也可求出任一流压下的产量。 Fetkovich equation is xxx.It is similar to the exponential deliverability equation of gas wells, and can also be used to determine the flow rate at any certain flowing pressure.
5.6.2   流压低于饱和压力、地层压力髙于饱和压力条件下的稳定试井解释。此时沃格方程改写为: 5.6. 2    Interpretation of steady well test on the condition of flowing pressure being lower than bubble point pressure, and reservoir pressure being higher than bubble point pressure. In this case, Vogel equation can be rewritten as:
6. 不稳定试井 6   Transient well test
6.1  不稳定试井原理 6.1 Principle of transient well test 
当油藏处于平衡状态时,如果改变井的工作制度,在油藏巾产生压力扰动,这种压力扰动的不稳定过程与油井、油藏储层和流体性质有关,可用非定常渗流力学理论进行定量的描述。 When the reservoir is in a balanced condition, if the working system of a well (or more wells) in the reservoir is changed, some pressure turbulence will occur in the reservoir. The transient procedure due to this pressure disturbance depends on the properties of the well(s), the reservoir and the flowing fluid t and can be described quantitatively by the theory of fluid flow through porous media. 
因而,对于预先设计的工作制度变化.在该井或邻井测量井底压力随时间的变化过程,通过分析和计算,即可判断和确定井和油藏的性质, Therefore. if the pressure change vs. time of the well itself or/and its adjacent well(s) due to its flow rate change according to the design is measured, the properties of the tested well and the tested reservoir can be diagnosed and determined by analysis and calculation.
6.2  不稳定试井测试要求 6. 2   Requirement of transient well test
6.2.1    确定下入深度。压力计应尽可能下到油层中部;如果压力计下不到油层中部时,要测取相应深度的流压梯度、温度梯度、静压梯度和静温梯度数据,按4. 2. 3. 4规定执行?  6. 2.1 Determine the setting depth. Best effort should be made to run the pressure gauges into the mid-depth of the tested interval. If it can not be done and the pressure gauges can only be set at a shallower place, the flowing pressure gradient? flowing temperature gradient, static pressure gradient and static temperature gradient of the corresponding depth must be measured according to the Article 4. 2. 3. 4 of this Specification.
6.2.2 根据测试目的和设计计算或试井模拟结果,确定测试时间。 6.2.2 Determine the test duration based on the objective of the test and the test design or the results of the well test simulation results. 
6.2.3 根据测试要求和仪器性能,确定合理的数据采集时间及间隔。 6. 2.3   Determine the reasonable acquisition duration and sampling rate during the test based on the requirement of the test and the capability of the gauges. 
6.2.4 测试期间测试井和邻井的工作制度应保持稳定。 6.2.4  The flow rate of the tested well and its adjacent well(s) must be kept stable during the test. 
对于注水井压力降落测试,要求关井前生产稳定,日注量小于30m'的井,稳定注人"7d以上,日注量大于30m3的井,稳定注入5d以上。 For pressure falloff test of water injection wells, injection rate is required to be stable before shutting-in the well: if injection raw is lower than 30m3/di it is required to inject stably for more than 7 days; and if injection rate is higher than 3()m3/d* to inject stably for more than 5 days.
6.2.5  多井试井时,要求先测出观察井底压力变化趋势。 6.2.5  For multi-well test, the variation trend of the bottom hole pressure in observation well(s)  must  be  measured  before changing working system in active well(s). 
6.2.6  地面关井要求井口密封无渗漏,井下关井要求坐封良好,仪器操作一次成功。 6. 2. 6    The wellhead is required to be sealed without leakage for surface shut-in, and the packer is required to be set well and the downhole instruments are required to be operated with one-time success for downhole shut-in. 
6.3  不稳定试井录取的资料 6. 3   Data acquired in transient well test 
6.3.1  压力、温度梯度数据:包括测试时间、測试深度、压力、压力梯度、温度、温度梯度。 6.3.1 Pressure gradient and temperature gradient data, including test time, measuring depth, pressuret pressure gradient temperature and temperature gradient.
6.3.2不稳定试井測试数据:包括时间、累计时间、实测井底压力、实测井底温度以及该井的流量史。 6. 3. 2 The data measured during transient well test, including the time, test duration, the measured bottom hole pressure, the measured bottom hole temperature and the flow rate history of the tested well(s).
6.3.3 多并试井时要測取观察井的井底压力、井底压力梯度、温度、温度梯度数据以及观察记录激动井的井口压力和流量变化情况。 6.3.3 For multi 一 well test, the bottom hole pressure, and its gradient, the bottom hole tem?perature and its gradient of the observation well Cs) must be acquired; the wellhead pressure and flow rate of the active well(s) must be observed and recorded as well. 
6.4  单井不稳定试井解释方法 6.4 Interpretation procedure of single well transient test
6.4.1解释模型选择: 6. 4. 1   Interpretation model selection
根据被测井的地质资料,利用双对数压力导数曲线形状、特征直线进行曲线诊断,划分各流动段,确定地层渗流特征和边界性质,选择合适的解释模型。 Based on the geological research results* diagnose the measured curve by the shape of its log -log pressure derivative plot and the specialized plot, so as to partition its flow regimes, to determine the flow characteristics and the boundary properties of the tested reservoir, and then to select appropriate interpretation model. 
6.4.2  参数计算。 6.4.2   Parameter calculation 
6.4.2.1常规分析:对双对数压力导数中期出现水平直线段的资料,都要用霍纳(Homer)法或MDH法进行常规分析,计算出有关的参数(有效渗透率K、表皮系数S、外推压力P、边界距离L等)和压力拟合值,并以此校正双对数曲线拟合中的压力拟合值。 6. 4. 2. 1   Conventional analysis: The data which form a horizontal straight-line in the middle regime on the pressure derivative curve must be analyzed with the conventional well test interpretation methods ( Horner or MDH method) to calculate the parameters of the tested reservoir and the tested well (i. e. effective permeability K9 skin factor S, extrapolated pressure pm and distance to the boundary Lb and so on) and pressure match value, then on the basis of whichi to modify further the pressure match value from log-log analysis. 
6.4.2.2 特征曲线分析。对双对数压力导数曲线出现的特征斜率直线,均应用以下特定的分析方法进行分析: 6. 4. 2. 2   Specialized plot analysis: The data of different parts of log - log pressure derivative curve must be analyzed by the following specialized plot analysis methods severally and accordingly:
a)  当早期出现斜率为1的直线时,作厶/>-A/ (或线性图,用其直线斜率计算井筒储存系数C,并校正双对数拟合分析的C值。 a) In the case of that the early data form a unit slope straight line on log 一 log plot,厶^~Nirate (working system) of the active wellCs)? the original pressure change trend of the observation wellCs) must be considered so that interference pressure changing with rime can be determined correctly.(or t) plot should be drawn, and from the slope of which the value of wellbore storage coefficient C should be calculated and then compared with its value obtained from log-log analysis;
b)  当早期出?6^率为1/2的直线时,作厶/(.mfo线性图,用其直线斜率计算裂缝半长 b) In the case of that the early data forma half - unit slope straight line on log-log plot, △/>^-/A^(or V7) plot should be drawn, and from [he slope of which the value of half-Length of the fracture, Xj, should be calculated
c)  当早期出现斜率为1^^^^,作Ap-^.^^i^i^p其直线斜率计算垂直裂缝导流能力 c) ln the case of that the early data form a quarter- unit slope straight line on log - log plot, Ap―{or ^t) plot should be drawn, and from the slope of which the value of conductivity of vertical fracture, KfWf, should be calculated;
d)  当压降晚期曲线出现封闭边界反应时.作/? U) -/线性图,用其直线斜率计算与井连通的孔隙体积、流体储量和面积。 d) If the reflection of closed system appears in late regime of the pressure drawdown curve, p(t)—t plot should be drawn. The data form a straight line, and from the slope of which the area, the pore volume connected with the tested well and the reserves of \ht tested reservoir should be calculated.
6.4.2.3    双对数图版曲线拟合分析: 6.4.2.3 Log-log type-curve match analysis
所冇试井资料都要用双对数图版拟合法进行拟合分析,通过调整图版曲线拟合值(.Coe25)^时间拟合值ZM和压力拟合值/>M,并用叠加线源解方法拟合边界反应, 使其达到^佳拟合,并计算出有,参数(例如有效渗透率K、表皮系数S、无因次井简储存系数CD、垂直裂缝半长X,、垂直裂缝导流能力K,W,、储能比o;、串流系数^、边界距离U等)。 Test data should be analyzed by log-log type -curve match analysis method. By adjusting curve match value (G>-S)M, Time match value tM and pressure match value pM, and superposing line, source solutions to match the boundary reflection, to optimize the match anc calculate the parameters of the tested reservoir and the tested well (i.e effective permeability K' skin facior S, dimensionless wellbore storage coefficient C, half - length of the vertical fracture Xt. conductivity of the vertical fracture KfWi, storativily ratio w interporosity flow coefficient A, distance to the boundary and so on)
6.4.2.4 解释结果检验 6.4.2.4   Varification of the interpretation results
6.4.2.4.1  一致性检验:用常规解释方法与双对数解杼方法所得的结果应一致,计算的K相对误差小于.S的差值不超过2。 6.4.2.4.1 Consistency verification-Results calculated by conventional interpretation method should agree with those calculated by log - log analysis method, thee relative difference of K from the two different analysis must be less than 10%, and the difference of S must be less than 2.
6.4.2.4.2  可靠性检验。 6.4.2.4.2   Reliability verification
6.4.2.4.2.1无因次霍纳曲线检验: 6.4.2.4.2.1   Verification by dimensionless Horner plot:
霍纳典型曲线和实测数据的无因次曲线应该彼此拟合。若获得一致性的分析结果,表明解释结果可靠;否则,要调整(Cne25)^ tM, pM, />'等拟合参数,直到达到满意的拟合为止。 Dimensionless Horner curve of measured data should match with Horner type curve. That they are consistent means the interpretation results are reliable; otherwise, the match values such as (C|>e:5)m??Pm or pf should be modified till good match is achieved.
6.4.2.4.2.2 压力史拟合检验: 6.4.2.4.2.2 Verification by pressure history match;
该部分是将实际的产量历史、解释模型以及从分析中得到的井和油藏的参数值代人相应的数学模型,从而计算出压力与时间的关系曲线,然后与实测曲线进行对比。 Put the actual production history and interpretation results including the reservoir model used in the interpretation and the parameter values of the well and the reservoir obtained from the interpretation, into the corresponding mathematical model, to calculate the theoretical pressure history, and then contrast the theoretical and the actual pressure histories. 
如果曲线重合,说明获得了良好的结果;否则,说明解释结果与实测的油藏动态不符,应重新选择模型进行参数计箅。 That both pressure histories coincide with each other means that satisfactory interpretation results have been achieved Contrarily, if both pressure histories don't match each other well, the interpretation results do not fit the performance of the tested reservoir, the interpretation model must be re - chosen and the parameters re-calculated
6.4.2.4.2.3    数值试井检验:有条件时可增加数值试井检验。 6.4.2.4.2.3 Verification by numerical well test. Verification by numerical well test can be added if possible.
6.5 多井试井解释方法 6.5 Multi-well test interpretation method
6.5.1  干扰试井解释方法。 6.5.1 Interference test interpretation method
6. 5.1.1干扰试井压力的确定: 6.5.1.1 Determination of interference pressure
在激动井改变工作制度进行干扰溯试前,要在观察井中下入髙精度的电子压力计,测出观察井的压力变化趋势。 High accuracy electronic pressure gauge( s) must be run into the observation well(s) to measure its or their pressure change trend before changing the choke or other working system In the active well(s) for interference test. 
激动井改变工作制度在观察井中测得的压力响应中,要考虑上述趋势压力,从而确定出随时间变化的干扰压力值。 When processing the pressure response measured in the observation well(s) caused by the change of flow rate (working system) of the active well(s), the original pressure change trend of the observation well(s) must be considered so that interference pressure changing with rime can be determined correctly.
6.5.1.2干扰测试资料解释: 6.5.1.2 Interference test data interpretation-
对均质油藏,常用的解释方法有三种:极值点法(激动井多次激动)、半对数分析法(适用于千扰测试段后期的数据点)、双对数指数积分曲线图版拟合法。 For the test of homogeneous reservoirs, there are three ordinary interpretation methods; extreme value method (when change the flow rate several times in the active well) , semi-log analysis method (applies to analyzing the late regime data of interference test), and exponential integral function type -curve (in log - log scale) match method. 
解释出的参数有井间流动系数(K/!/>)和弹性储能系数WhCt)。 The parameters obtained from the interpretation are the average values of flow coefficient (Kk/ft) and storativity factor (MC,) in the area between the active well(s) and the observation well(s).
对双重介质油藏,常用双对数图版拟合法解释。 Log-log type-curve match interpretation method is usually used for interference tests in double porosity reservoir. 
可选择的图版有双重孔隙介质间流动为拟稳态和不稳定两种图版,以及双重介质地层干扰压力理论图版等。 There are some kinds of interference pressure type-curve for double-porosity reservoir: the first one is for the pseudo-steady flow between the two porous medium systems, the second for the transient flow between them, and the third is called the theoretical interference pressure type curve for double-porosity reservoir. 
解释出的参数有井间裂缝系统的流动系数(KfA/^>和弹性储能系数mc》以及裂缝岩块系统问的串流系数A和储能比w。 The parameters obtained from interpretation are flow coefficient of the fissure system between wells iK[h/fx) , storativity factor (#ACr) , interporosity flow coefficient A and stnrativity ratio w of the matrix-fissure system.
6.5.2  脉冲试井解释方法, 6- 5.2  Pulse test interpretation method
6.5.2.1脉冲试井录取资料要求:所取资料主要为脉冲压力响应幅度、脉冲周期、激动井脉冲流量 6.5.2.1    Requirement of data acquisition in pulse teat: The acquired data are mainly the response amplitude of the pulse pressure, pulse periods, pulse flow rate of the active well and the distance between active well and observation wells).
以及激动井与观察井之间的距离。其余资料如地层和流体性质等与单井试井相同。  The other data such as properties of the tested reservoir and the fluid are required just the same as in single well test cases.
6.5.2.2脉冲试井资料解释方法: 6.5. 2. 2 Pulse test data interpretation method:
脉冲试井录取的资料可通过图解法和经验法求解井间地层参数。 The data acquired in the pulse test can be used to calculate the parameters of the formation between the wells by using the diagrammatizing methods or/and the empirical methods. 
图解法所用的图版为脉冲压力响应幅度与滞后时间关系图,对不同的脉冲次数有不同的图版;经验法适用于脉冲比为0.2?0.8的情况。 The type-curves used in the diagratnmatiz\ng meth?ods are the plots of response amplitude of pulse pressure vs. lag time. There are different type -curves for different parity of the pulse number. Empirical method applies when the pulse ratio is 0.2?0.8. 
解释的参数勺干扰试井相同,以上方法均只适用于均质油藏,不适用于双重孔隙介质油藏,因而对双重孔隙介质油藏不宜安排脉冲试井. The parameters obtained from the interpretation are the same as those obtained from the interference test interpretation. These methods are applicable only for homogeneous reservoir, and not for double porosity reservoir; therefore it is inadvisable to run a pulse test in double porosity reservoir.

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