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SYT 6426-2005 钻井井控技术规程  

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钻井井控技术规程 Specification for well control technology of drilling
本标准修订并代替SY/T6426-1999《钻井井控技术规程》。 This standard is based on SY/T 6426-1999, Specification for well control technology of drilling and replaces it.
本标准与SY/T6426-1999相比,主要变化如下: In comparison with the standard of SY/T 6426-1999, main changes are as follows:
—第3章各条的编号作了调整; -The serial numbers of 3 are modified.
—增加3.1井口距周边设施距离的要求; -The requirement for distances between the wellhead and surrounding facilities is added in 3 .1 .
—3.5中删除对同一裸眼井段内不同压力梯度值的油气水层规定,增加在地下矿产采掘区钻井的要求; -For 3.5, provisions on different pressure gradients for oil, gas and water zones in the same open hole section are deleted, and requirements for drilling in production zone are added.
—3.7中增加抗硫井口装置及井控管汇要求; -For 3.7, the requirements for H2S wellhead equipment and well control manifolds are added
—增加3.12欠平衡钻井作业条件; — Underbalanced drilling operation conditions are added in 3.12.
—增加4.1.1.5套管头的安装规定; — Provisions for casing head installation are added in 4.1.1.5 .
一4.1.2.4中删除放喷管线固定用水泥基坑的体积规定; — Provisions for volume of the cement foundation pits for blooie line fixation in 4.1 .2 .4 are deleted.
—4.2.1中要求防喷器组应在井控车间按并场连接形式组装试压、节流管汇按零部件额定工作压力分别试压; — Requirements that BOP stacks shall be pressure tested in the form of well site connection in the well control workshop and that the choke manifold shall be pressure tested in accordance with the rated working pressure of each spare part are added in 4. 2 . 1.
—增加4.3.巧对采油(气)井口装置的试压要求; -For 4.3. 15, pressure-testing requirements for oil ( gas) production wellheads are added.
—增加4.4.1,4.4.2和4.4.4对井控装置、欠平衡钻井特殊井控作业设备的管理制度; — Management systems for both well control equipment and special well control operation equipment of under-balanced drilling in 4. 4.1,4.4.2 , and 4 .4 .4 are added.
—5.6中增加钻井队干部值班的具体要求; -For 5.6, detailed requirements for crew managers on duty are added.
—删除原6.10下钻操作; -The tripping out operation in the previous 6.10 is deleted.
—删除原6.14.4试油作业中的井控工作; -The well control operation during well testing in the previous 6.14 .4 is deleted.
—第7章各条的编号作了调整; -The serial numbers in Clause 7 are adjusted.
—删除原7.4.2.3和7.4.2.4压井方法的选择; — Options for killing methods in the previous 7.4.2.3 and 7.4.2.4 are deleted.
—第8章各条的编号作了调整,并加了标题; -The serial numbers of 8 are adjusted and titles are added.
—8.1.6改其中执行标准SY/T6283为SY/T5858; -For8 .1. 6, execution specification for SY/T 62 83 is switched to SY/T 5858.
—8.2.5改50mg/l为50mg/m'; -For 8 .2. 5 ,5 0mg/Li sc hangedt o5 0mg/m'.
一第9章各条进行了重新组合、排序,并对一些条的内容作了适当修改; -Each item in 9 is reorganized, collated and properly modified for some contents
—原第10章改为第11章,全部内容删除后新拟了3条原则要求;原第11章改为第10章; -The previous 10 is modified as 11. All contents are deleted and 3 new principle requirements are drafted. The previous1 1 is changed to 10.
—10.2中增加了应持“井控操作证”上岗人员的规定; - For1 0.2 , requirements that which person shall possess a Well control operation certificate are added.
—删除原11.8“井控操作证”制度的管理; -The management on Well control operation certificate in previous11.8 is deleted
—附录A中增加了图A.1、图A.7、图A.11、图A.12和图A.18,并对原图A9一图A13(现图A.13一图A.17)作了适当修改; — Figures A.1, A.7, A.11, A.12, and A.18 are added in Annex A, and some modifications are made for previous figures A9 一 A 13 (present are figures A.13一A. 1 7) .
一增加了附录C; Annex C is added.
—附录F中的表F.1增加邻近注水、注气井情况。 For Annex F, conditions of offset water and gas injection wells is added to Table F.1.B29
本标准的附录A、附录B和附录C为规范性附录,附录D、附录E、附录F、附录G和附录H为资料性附录。 The annexes A,. B and C are normative, and annexes D, E, F, G, H are informative.
本标准由石油钻井工程专业标准化委员会提出并归口。 The standard is proposed by and under the jurisdiction of Professional Standard Committee of Petroleum Drilling Engineering.
本标准起草单位:四川石油管理局钻采工艺技术研究院、四川石油管理局技术检测中心。 The drafting departments: Drilling& Production Technology Research Institute and Technology test center of Sichuan petroleum administration.
本标准主要起草人:高碧桦、李强、张斌、刘雪梅、杨小珊 The standard is drafted by Bihua Gao, QiangLi, Bin Zhang, Xuemei Liu, Xiaoshan Yang.
本标准所代替标准的历次版本发布情况为:-SY/T6426-1999 The previously published version of the standard replaced by this standard is SY/T 6426-1999.
本标准以中文和英文两种文字出版。当英文与中文两种版本有歧义时,以中文版本为准。 This standard is published in both Chinese and English .I n the event of any discrepancy between the texts, the Chinese version shall prevail.
钻井井控技术规程 Specification for Well Control Technology of Drilling
范围 1 Scope
本标准规定了钻井井控技术的管理、实施及培训原则。 This standard specifies the principles for management, implementation and training of well control technology of drilling.
本标准适用于陆地油气田勘探、开发钻井作业中的油气井压力控制技术。 This standard is applicable to the pressure control technology of oil and gas wells in exploration and production drilling operations on land
2规范性引用文件 2 Normative
下列文件中的条款通过本标准的引用而成为本标准的条款。凡是注日期的引用文件,其随后所有的修改单(不包括勘误的内容)或修订版均不适用于本标准,然而,鼓励根据本标准达成协议的各方研究是否可使用这些文件的最新版本。凡是不注日期的引用文件,其最新版本适用于本标准。 The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this standard, constitute provisions of this standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications (exclude errata) do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.
SY/T5087含硫化氢油气井安全钻井推荐作法 SY/T 5087 Safe drilling recommendations for sour oil and gas wells
SY/T5127井口装置和采油树规范 SY/T 5127 Specification for wellhead equipment and christmas tree
SY5225石油与天然气钻井、开发、储运防火防爆安全生产管理规定 SY 5225 Safety rule for fire and explosion prevention during drilling, exploration, storage and transportation of oil and gas
SY/T5430地层破裂压力测定套管鞋试漏法 SY/T 5430 Determination of formation fracture pressure, leak-off test method for casing shoe
SY5742石油天然气钻井井控安全技术考核管理规则 SY 5742 Examination regulation for well control safety technology in oil and gas drilling
SY/T5858石油工业动火作业安全规程 SY/T 5858 Safety code for industrial use of fire in petroleum enterprises
SY5876石油钻井队安全生产检查规定 SY 5876 Safety inspection regulation for petroleum drilling crew
SY/T5964钻井井控装置组合配套、安装调试与维护 SY/T 5964 Matching, installation adjustment and maintenance for drilling well control equipment
SY/T6203油气井井喷着火抢险作法 SY/T 6203 Wrecking method for oil and gas well blowout and fires
3钻井井控设计 3 Well control design
3.1油气井井口距高压线及其他永久性设施应不小于75m;距民宅应不小于loom;距铁路、高速公路应不小于200m;距学校、医院和大型油库等人口密集性、高危性场所应不小于500m。 3.1 The distances between the wellhead and high voltage lines and other permanent facilities shall not be less than 75m, between the wellhead and any dwelling shall not be less than 100m, between the wellhead and railway and highway shall not be less than 200m, between the wellhead and highly dangerous places with high population density such as large scale fuel depots, hospitals and schools shall not be less than 500m. 
含硫油气井应急撤离措施参见SY/T5087有关规定。 For oil and gas wells with H,S, the measures for emergency evacuation shall refer to the pertinent regulations in the SY/T 5087.
3.2对井场周围一定范围内的居民住宅、学校、厂矿(包括开采地下资源的矿业单位)、国防设施、高压电线和水资源情况以及风向变化等进行勘察和调查,并在地质设计中标注说明。 3.2 Survey and investigation shall be conducted on dwellings, schools, plants and mines (including the mineral units for underground minerals production),national defense facilities,high voltage power lines, water resources and wind direction variation in a certain range of the wellsite and their results shall be marked and noted in the geologic design. 
特别需标注清楚诸如煤矿等采掘矿井坑道的分布、走向、长度和离地表深度。 Conditions of the layout, trend, length and depth of mining shafts and trenches such as coalmines shall be marked specifically.
3.3根据物探资料及本构造邻近井和邻构造的钻探情况,提供本井全井段地层孔隙压力和地层破裂压力剖面(裂缝性碳酸盐岩地层可不作地层破裂压力曲线,但应提供邻近已钻井地层承压检验资料)、浅气层资料、油气水显示和复杂情况。 3.3 Based on seismic and drilling information of offset wells in the same structure or the nearby ones, the formation pore pressure and formation fracture pressure profiles of the whole section (formation fracture pressure curve is not necessary for fractured carbonate formations, but integrity test information of offset wells shall be provided),shallow gas formation information,oil, gas and water shows and complexity should be provided.
3.4根据地质提供的资料,钻井液密度设计以各裸眼井段中的最高地层孔隙压力当量钻井液密度值为基准,另加一个安全附加值: 3.4 Based on the geological information, the drilling fluid density should be set to the maximum equivalent density of all the formations open to the hole, and plus a safety value as bellow:
a)油井、水井为0.05g/cm'-O.lOg/cm3或控制井底压差1.5MPa-3.5MPa; a) For oil wells and water wells, the value is 0 ./05`cgm 一 0. 10g/cm' or the bottom hole pressure difference shall be controlled with in 1.5 MPa---3.5 MPa.
b)气井为0.07g/cm'-O.15g/cm3或控制井底压差3.OMPa-5.OMPa. b) For gas wells, the value is0.07g/cm'一0. 15g /c m' or the bottomhole pressure difference shall be controlled within 3. 0MPa -v 5 .O MPa.
具体选择钻井液密度安全附加值时,应根据实际情况考虑下列影响因素: While opting the added safety value of drilling fluid density, the following considerations shall be taken in accordance with the actual situations:
地层孔隙压力预测精度; Prediction accuracy of formation pore pressure .
油层、气层、水层的埋藏深度; Depth of the oil, gas and water zones.
地层油气中硫化氢的含量; HZ S content in the oil and gas formation
地应力和地层破裂压力; In -situ stress and formation fracture pressure
井控装置配套情况。 Well control equipment configuration.
3.5根据地层孔隙压力梯度、地层破裂压力梯度、岩性剖面及保护油气层的需要,设计合理的井身结构和套管程序,并满足如下要求: 3.5 Based on the formation pore pressure gradient, formation fracture pressure gradient, lithology profile and the requirement for formation damage control, casing program shall be designed rationally and meet the following requirements:
a)探井、超深井、复杂井的井身结构应充分估计不可预测因素,留有一层备用套管; a) Unpredicted factors of exploration, ultra deep wells and complicated wells shall be fully estimated, and space for spare casing shall be reserved
b)在地下矿产采掘区钻井,井筒与采掘坑道、矿井通道之间的距离应不少于loom,套管下深应封住开采层并超过开采段loom; b) While drilling in underground mineral excavation are as, the distance between the wellbore and the excavation tunnel or mine shafts shall not be less than 100 m . Set the casing 100m deeper than the mining zone and seal off the section concerned in the well.
c)套管下深要考虑下部钻井最高钻井液密度和溢流关井时的井口安全关井余量; c) The maximum drilling fluid density under the casing shoe and surface safety shut-in allowance while overflow occurs shall be taken into consideration while determining he casing depth.
d)含硫化氢、二氧化碳等有害气体和高压气井的油层套管、有害气体含量较高的复杂井技术套管,其材质和螺纹应符合相应的技术要求。 d) For production casings used in H2S and C02 and high pressure gas wells, and the intermediate casing in complicated wells with high content of harmful gases, their materials and threads shall follow the relevant technical requirements .
3.6每层套管固井开钻后,按SY/T5430要求测定套管鞋下第一个3m-5m厚的易漏层的破裂压力。 3.6 For the first encountered formation subject to leak after the casing was cemented, the leakoff test shall be performed when it is drilled 3m to 5m in accordance with the requirements of SY/T 5430.
3.7井控装置配套: 3.7 Well control equipment configuration;
a)防喷器压力等级应与裸眼井段中最高地层压力相匹配,并根据不同的井下情况选用各次开钻防喷器的尺寸系列和组合形式: a) The pressure rating of BOP shall match to the maximum formation pressure of the open hole section, and the size and configuration of the BOP stack shall be selected in accordance with the downhole conditions.
1)选用压力等级为14MPa时,其防喷器组合有五种形式供选择,见图A.1一图A.5; 1) I f the pressure rating is 14MPa, There are 5 options for a B OP stack. Refer to Fig. A.1 -Fig. A.5.
2)选用压力等级为21MPa和35MPa时,其防喷器组合有三种形式供选择,见图A.6一图A.8; 2) If the pressure rating is2 1MPa and 35M Pa, there are 3 options for a BOP stack . Refer to Fig.A.6 一Fig. A. 8.
3)选用压力等级为70MPa和105MPa时,其防喷器组合有四种形式供选择,见图A.9-图A.120 3) I ft he p ressurer atingi s7 0MPa and 105 MPa, there are 4 options for a BOP stack . Refer to Fig.A .9 一Fi g. A . 1 3 .
b)节流管汇的压力等级和组合形式应与全井防喷器最高压力等级相匹配: b) The pressure ratinga nda rrangemento f choke manifolds shall match the maximum pressure rating of BOP:
1)压力等级为14MPa时,节流管汇见图A.13; 1) If t h e pressure rating is1 4MPa,refer to Fig .A .1 3
2)压力等级为21MPa时,节流管汇见图A.14; 2) If the pressure rating is2 1MPa, refer to Fig. A.14.
3)压力等级为35MPa和70MPa时,节流管汇见图A.15; 3) If the pressure rating is3 5MPa and 70 MPa, refer to Fig.A.1 5.
4)压力等级为105MPa时,节流管汇见图A.16. 4) If the pressure rating is 105MPa, refer to Fig.A.16.
c)压井管汇的压力等级和连接形式应与全井防喷器最高压力等级相匹配,其基本形式见图A.17、图A.18. c) The pressure rating and connection of kill manifolds shall match the maximum pressure rating f BOP. Refer to Fig.A.17 and Fig.A.1 8 for their basic arrangements.
d)绘制各次井钻井口装置及井控管汇安装示意图,并提出相应的安装、试压要求。 d) Draw the installation diagram of wellhead equipment and well control manifolds each time resumes drilling after the casing was cemented. And present relevant requirements on installation and pressure testing.
e)有抗硫要求的井口装置及井控管汇应符合SY/T5087中的相应规定。 e) H2S proof wellhead equipment and well control manifolds shall meet the requirements of SY/T 5087.
3.8钻具内防喷工具、井控监测仪器、仪表、钻具旁通阀及钻井液处理装置和灌注装置,应根据各油气田的具体情况配齐,以满足井控技术的要求。 3.8 Internal blowout preventers, well control monitors, instrument, bypass valves of drill tools as well as solid control system and filling unit for drilling fluid shall be equipped completely in accordance with situations of each oil and gas field to meet the requirements of well control technology.
3.9根据地层流体中硫化氢和二氧化碳含量及完井后最大关井压力值,并考虑能满足进一步采取增产措施和后期注水、修井作业的需要,按SY/T5127选用完井井口装置的型号、压力等级和尺寸系列。 3.9 Based on HZS and CO, content information fluids and the maximum shut-in pressure after well completion, as well as type, pressure rating and size of completion wellhead shall be selected according to SY/T 5127, and the further stimulation, water injection and workover operations shall also be considered.
3.10钻井工程设计书中应明确钻开油气层前加重钻井液和加重材料的储备量,以及油气井压力控制的主要技术措施。 3.10 The drilling design shall specify the reserve amount of weighted drilling fluid and weighting materials for drilling in the pay zone, as well as the main technical measures for pressure control 
3.11在可能含硫化氢地区钻井,应对其层位、埋藏深度及含量进行预测,并在设计中明确应采取的相应安全和技术措施。 3.11 In areas containing H2S ,the formation, depth and content of H2S shall be predicted, and the drilling design shall define the relevant safety and technical measures.
3.12欠平衡钻井应在地层情况等条件具备的井中进行。欠平衡钻井施工设计书中应制定确保作业安全、防止井喷、井喷失控或着火以及防硫化氢等有害气体伤害的安全措施。 3.12 Underbalanced drilling shall be conducted in proper wells where formation conditions are known and suitable. Under-balanced drilling design shall specify safety measures for blowout prevention, firing and poisonous gases such as H,S to guarantee safe operation.
3.13对探井、预探井、资料井应采用地层压力随钻检(监)测技术;绘制本井预测地层压力梯度曲线、设计钻井液密度曲线、do指数随钻监测地层压力梯度曲线和实际钻井液密度曲线,根据监测和实钻结果,及时调整钻井液密度 3. 13 For pre-exploration and information (data) wells, pressure prediction while drilling technology shall be adopted. Draw curves of predicted formation pressure gradient, designed drilling fluid density, formation pressure gradient measured by do exponent while drilling and actual drilling fluid density. Based on the measured and operation results, adjust the drilling fluid density in time.
3.14在已开发调整区钻井,油气田开发部门要及时查清注水、注气(汽)井分布及注水、注气(汽)情况,提供分层动态压力数据。钻开油气层之前应采取相应的停注、泄压和停抽等措施,直到相应层位套管固井候凝完为止。 3.14 For drilling in the developed adjusting area, the development department of the oil company shall check the distribution of water or gas (stream) injection wells, as well as the injection situations and provide the dynamic pressure data of each zone. Before drilling into the pay zone, measures such as injection suspension, pressure relief and pump off shall be conducted till the casing cementing completed.
4 井控装置的安装、试压、使用和管理 4 Installation pressure test, operation and management of well control equipment
4.1井控装置的安装 4.1 Installation of well control equipment
对于井控装置的安装标准,经油田有关部门进行安全评估后,在确保钻井安全的情况下,对本标准的相关条款可作适当调整。 For specifications for well control equipment installation, under the conditions that drilling safety is ensured, relevant provisions in this standard can be properly regulated after safety evaluation by corresponding departments of oil fields.
4.1.1钻井井口装置 4.1.1 Wellhead for drilling
钻井井口装置包括防喷器、防喷器控制系统、四通及套管头等。 The wellhead for drilling includes blowout preventer (BOP),BOP control system, spool and casing head, etc.
4.1.1.1防喷器安装、校正和固定应符合SY/T5964中的相应规定。 4.1.1.1 BOP installation, calibration and fixation shall conform to SY/T 5964
4.1.1.2具有手动锁紧机构的闸板防喷器应装齐手动操作杆,靠手轮端应支撑牢固,其中心与锁紧轴之间的夹角不大于300。挂牌标明开、关方向和到底的圈数。 4.1.1.2 The ram type BOP with manual locking mechanism shall be equipped with manual operation rod. The end at hand wheel shall be supported firmly, and the inclination of the rod shall not be greater than 300. The direction for On and Off and the number of turns for fully open shall be indicated.
4.1.1.3防喷器远程控制台安装要求: 4. 1. 1.3 Installation requirements for BOP remote control panel
a)应安装在面对井架大门左侧、距井口不少于25m的专用活动房内,距放喷管线或压井管线应有lm以上距离,并在周围留有宽度不少于2m的人行通道,周围lOm内不得堆放易燃、易爆、易腐蚀物品; a) The panel shall be installed inside the dedicated mobile field camp, which is at least 25m away from the wellhead and on th left facing the V –door and shall be at least 1 m from relief lines or kill lines. The walk way of above 2 m shall be remained around the panel and inflammable, explosive and corrosive matters shall not be packed within 10m of the panel.
b)管排架与防喷管线及放喷管线的距离应不少于lm,车辆跨越处应装过桥盖板;不允许在管排架上堆放杂物和以其作为电焊接地线或在其上进行焊割作业; b) The distance between line skits and relief lines shall not be less than lm. Overcross boards shall be used for vehicle crossing. Sundries shall not be packed on lines kits, on which welding operations are forbidden.
c)总气源应与司钻控制台气源分开连接,并配置气源排水分离器,严禁强行弯曲和压折气管束; c) The air supply shall be separated from that of driller's console, and shall be equipped with liquid/gas separators. Excessive bending and pinching on air hoses are forbidden.
d)电源应从配电板总开关处直接引出,并用单独的开关控制; d) Power shall be directly from the main switch of the power board, and controlled by independents witches
e)蓄能器完好,压力达到规定值,并始终处于工作压力状态。 e) Accumulators shall be in good condition, charged at its rated value, and ready for work any time.
4.1.1.4四通的配置及安装应符合SY/T5964中的相应规定。 4.1.1.4 The configuration and installation of spools shall conform to SY/T 5964.
4.1.1.5套管头的安装应符合SY/T5964中的相应规定 4.1.1.5 The installation of casing heads shall conform to SY/T 5964
4.1.2井控管汇 4.1.2 Well control manifolds
井控管汇包括节流管汇、压井管汇、防喷管线和放喷管线。 Well control manifolds include choke manifolds, kill manifolds, blowout preventing lines and relief lines.
4.1.2.1钻井液回收管线、防喷管线和放喷管线应使用经探伤合格的管材。防喷管线应采用螺纹与标准法兰连接,不允许现场焊接。 4.1.2.1 Materials for drilling fluid recovery lines, blowout preventing lines and relief lines shall be qualified by defect detection. Blowout preventing lines shall be connected by threads and standard flanges, and on site welding is forbidden. Field welding is not permitted.
4.1.2.2钻井液回收管线出口应接至钻井液罐并固定牢靠,转弯处应使用角度大于1200的铸(锻)钢弯头,其通径不小于78mm; 4.1.2.2 Outlets of drilling fluid recovery lines shall be coupled into drilling fluid tanks and be fixed firmly. For cornering, the cast( forged) steel bends with the angle greater than 1200 shall be used, and the internal diameter shall not be less than 78mm.
4.1.2.3放喷管线安装要求: 4.1.2.3 Installation requirements for relief lines
a)放喷管线至少应有两条,其通径不小于78mm; a) T h ere shall be at least 2 relief lines, with the internal diameter larger than 78 mm.
b)放喷管线不允许在现场焊接; b) No field welding is permitted on relief lines
c)布局要考虑当地季节风向、居民区、道路、油罐区、电力线及各种设施等情况; c) The arrangement shall take wind directions, dwellings, roads, oil tank areas, power lines and other facilities into consideration
d)两条管线走向一致时,应保持大于0.3m的距离,并分别固定; d) While the two lines go in the same trend, the distance between them shall be at least 0 .3 m, and the two lines shall be fixed in dependently.
e)管线尽量平直引出,如因地形限制需要转弯,转弯处应使用角度大于1200的铸(锻)钢弯头; e) The lines shall be as straight as possible. if cornering is necessary owing to the land form , cast( forged) steel bends with the angle greater than 120°shall be used.
f)管线出口应接至距井口75m以上的安全地带,距各种设施不小于50m; f) The outlets of the lines shall be in a safe area which is at least 7 5m from the wellhead and 50 m from each facility.
g)管线每隔10m-15m、转弯处、出口处用水泥基墩加地脚螺栓或地锚或预制基墩固定牢靠,悬空处要支撑牢固;若跨越10m宽以上的河沟、水塘等障碍,应架设金属过桥支撑; g) At every 10m一15m, cornering positions, and outlets, the lines shall be supported and fixed by cement foundations with anchor bolts or ground anchors, or forecast foundations. Hanging portions shall be supported firmly. If crossing the brooks or ponds with a width of more 10m, metal bridging supports are necessary.
h)水泥基墩的预埋地脚螺栓直径不小于20mm,长度大于0.5m. h) Pre buried anchor bolts for cement foundations shall not be less than 20mm in diameter, and greater than 0.5m in length.
4.1.2.4井控管汇所配置的平板阀应符合SY/T5127中的相应规定。 4.1.2.4 Plate valves equipped for well control manifolds shall conform to SY/T 5127.
4.1.2.5防喷器四通两翼应各装两个闸阀,紧靠四通的闸阀应处于常开状态。 4.1.2.5 On each side of the drillings pool, two gate valves shall be equipped, and the gate valve next to the spool shall be always open.
4.1.3钻具内防喷工具 4.1.3 Inside blowout preventer
钻具内防喷工具包括上部和下部方钻杆旋塞阀、钻具止回阀和防喷钻杆。 Inside blowout preventers include upper and lower Kelly cocks, check valves of drill tool and choke pipes
4.1.3.1钻具内防喷工具的额定工作压力应不小于井口防喷器额定工作压力。 4.1.3.1 The rated working pressure of the internal blowout preventer shall not be less than that of wellhead BOP
4.1.3.2应使用方钻杆旋塞阀,并定期活动;钻台上配备与钻具尺寸相符的钻具止回阀或旋塞阀。 4.1.3.2 Kelly cocks shall be used and tested on time. Check valves of drill tool or safety valves adaptable to the drill tools shall be equipped on the drill floor
4.1.3.3钻台上准备一根防喷钻杆单根(带与钻挺连接螺纹相符合的配合接头和钻具止回阀)。 4.1.3.3 One choke pipe shall be prepared on the drillfloor(with connector and check valve of drill tool adaptable to drill collar connection)
4.1.4井控监测仪器及钻井液净化、加重和灌注装置 4.1.4 Well control monitors and solid control system, weighting and fill-in equipment of drilling fluid
4.1.4.1应配备钻井液循环池液面监测与报警装置。 4.1.4.1 Drilling fluid circulation tanks shall be equipped with pit volume totalizer (PVT) and alarms.
4.1.4.2按设计要求配齐钻井液净化装置,探井、气井及气油比高的油井还应配备钻井液气体分离器和除气器,并将液气分离器排气管线(按设计通径)接出井口50m以上。 4.1.4.2 The configuration of solid control system shall conform to the design. For exploration, gas wells and wells with high oil/gas ratio, gas separator and degasser are necessary, and the vent line (according to the designed shift diameter) of the liquid/gas separator shall be at least 50m from the wellhead.
4.2井控装置的试压 4.2 Pressure test of well control equipment
4.2.1试压值 4.2.1 Pressure test value
4.2.1.1防喷器组应在井控车间按井场连接形式组装试压,环形防喷器(封闭钻杆,不试空井)、闸板防喷器和节流管汇、压井管汇、防喷管线试额定工作压力。 4.2.1.1 The BOP stack shall be pressure tested in the form of on-site connection in the well control workshop and the annular BOP (with drill pipes sealed inside instead of empty hole), ram type BOP, choke manifolds, kill manifolds and blowout preventing lines shall be pressure tested to their rated working pressure.
4.2.1.2在井上安装好后,试验压力在不超过套管抗内压强度80环的前提下,环形防喷器封闭钻杆试验压力为额定工作压力的70;闸板防喷器、方钻杆旋塞阀和压井管汇、防喷管线试验压力为额定工作压力;节流管汇按零部件额定工作压力分别试压;放喷管线试验压力不低于1OMPa. 4.2.1.2 With all BOP equipment installed on the wellhead, any pressure test to be performed Shall not exceed 80% of the internal pressure strength of the casings in the well. Annular BOP with drill pipes packed in shall be tested to 70 % of the rated working pressure; ram type BOP, Kelly cock skill lines and blowout preventing lines be pressure tested to their rated working pressures; each part in the choke lines be tested respectively to its rated working pressures; the relief lines be pressure tested to no less than 10MPa.
4.2.1.3钻开油气层前及更换井控装置部件后,应采用堵塞器或试压塞按照4.2.1.2中的有关条件及要求试压 4.2.1.3 Before penetrating into the pay zone or after changing the component of well control equipment, the pressure test shall be done by test plugs or cups in accordance with Clause 4.2.1.2.
4.2.1.4防喷器控制系统用21MPa的油压作一次可靠性试压。 4.2.1.4 The control system of BOP shall be pressure tested to 21MPa for its reliability before putting into use.
4.2.2试压规则 4.2.2 Principle
4.2.2.1除防喷器控制系统采用规定压力油试压外,其余井控装置试压介质均为清水。 4.2.2.1 Except that the BOP control system is tested by oil pressure, other well control equipment shall be pressure tested by clear water.
4.2.2.2试压稳压时间不少于1Omin,允许压降不大于0.7MPa,密封部位无渗漏为合格。 4.2.2.2 Holding periods for test shall be a minimum of 10 min. Allowable pressure drop shall not be greater than 0.7MPa. Acceptance criteria: no visible leakage shall occur during holding period
4.3井控装置的使用 4.3 Operation of well control equipment
4.3.1环形防喷器不得长时间关井,非特殊情况不允许用来封闭空井。 4.3.1 Annular BOP shall not be used for long time shut in, and to seal wells without pipes inside except special conditions.
4.3.2在套压不超过7MPa情况下,用环形防喷器进行不压井起下钻作业时,应使用180斜坡接头的钻具,起下钻速度不得大于。.2m/so 4.3.2 With casing pressure lower than7 MPa, while snubbing with annular BOP, drill tools shall have 180 shoulder tool joints, and the snubbing velocity shall not be greater than 0.2m/s.
4.3.3具有手动锁紧机构的闸板防喷器关井后,应手动锁紧闸板。 4.3.3 After shut-in by ram type BOP with manual latch mechanism, the rams shall be locked manually. 
打开闸板前,应先手动解锁,锁紧和解锁都应先到底,然后回转1/4圈一1/2圈。 Before open rams, unlock manually first For lock and unlock, the operator shall screw in or off all threads, then back by 1/4- 1/2circle.
4.3.4环形防喷器或闸板防喷器关闭后,在关井套压不超过14MPa情况下,允许以不大于0.2m/s的速度上下活动钻具,但不准转动钻具或过钻具接头。 4.3.4 After shutting off the annular BOP or ram type BOP, with the shut-in casing pressure not greater than 14MPa, drill tools are allowed to pull up and down with the velocity less than 0.2m/s, however, rotating or tool joint passing through are forbidden.
4.3.5当井内有钻具时,不允许关闭全封闸板防喷器。 4.3.5 While drill tools in hole, closing blind ram type BOP is forbidden.
4.3.6严禁用打开防喷器的方式来泄井内压力。 4.3.6 Opening BOP for pressure releasing is forbidden.
4.3.7检修装有铰链侧门的闸板防喷器或更换其闸板时,两侧门不能同时打开。 4.3.7 While repairing ram type BOP equipped with hinged side doors or replacing rams, the two side doors should not be opened simultaneously
4.3.8钻开油气层后,定期对闸板防喷器开、关活动及环形防喷器试关井(在有钻具的条件下)。 4.3.8 While drilling through the pay zone (s) and thereafter, close-open test for the BOPS shall be performed regularly (with drill string inside).
4.3.9井场应备有一套与在用闸板同规格的闸板和相应的密封件及其拆装工具和试压工具。 4.3.9 A set of rams, sealing elements, and their assembling tools, as well as the pressure test tools of the same specification as the rams on use shall be reserved on site.
4.3.10防喷器及其控制系统的维护保养按SY/T5964中的相应规定执行。 4.3. 10 The maintenance of BOP and its control system shall conform to SY/T 5964.
4.3.11有二次密封的闸板防喷器和平行闸板阀,只能在密封失效至严重漏失的紧急情况下才能使用,且止漏即可,待紧急情况解除后,立即清洗更换二次密封件。 4. 3. 11 The ram type BOP with secondary sealing and plate valves shall be only used while serious leakages resulting from sealing failures. Once the emergency is under control, the secondary sealing element shall be cleaned and replaced immediately.
4.3.12平行闸板阀开、关到底后,应回转1/4圈一1/2圈。其开、关应一次完成,不允许半开半闭和作节流阀用。 4.3.12 After the plate valve is opened or closed completely, turn back by 1/4-1/2 circles. The open and close operation shall be done at one time. Half open and being used as choke valve are not allowed.
4.3.13压井管汇不能用作日常灌注钻井液用;防喷管线、节流管汇和压井管汇应采取防堵、防漏、防冻措施;最大允许关井套压值在节流管汇处以明显的标示牌标示。 4.3.13 Kill manifolds shall not be used for drilling fluid fill-in. Measures such as blocking, leaking and freezing proof shall be taken for blowout preventing lines, choke manifolds and kill manifolds. The maximum 'allowed shut-in casing pressure shall be remarkably indicated on choke manifolds.
4.3.14井控管汇上所有闸阀都应挂牌编号并标明其开、关状态。 4.3.14 All gate valves of well control manifolds shall be tagged with serial numbers, and be indicated with On/Off.
4.3.15采油(气)井口装置等井控装置应经检验、试压合格后方能上井安装;采油(气)井口装置在井上组装后还应整体试压,合格后方可投人使用。 4.3.15 Well control equipment such as oil (gas) production wellhead shall be inspected, pressure tested before installed on the well. After assembled on the well, the oil (gas) production wellhead shall be integrally pressure tested before putting into use
4.4井控装置的管理 4.4 Management of well control equipment
4.4.1各油气田应有专门机构负责井控装置的管理、维修和定期现场检查工作,并规定其职责范围和管理制度。 4.4 .1 Each oil and gas company and contractor shall have dedicated departments, with mandate and management systems regulated, responsible for well control equipment management and repairing, as well as regular on-site inspection.
4.4.2钻井队在用井控装置的管理、操作应落实专人负责,并明确岗位责任。 4.4.2 Well control equipment used by the drilling crew shall be managed and operated by designated personnel with clear post responsibilities.
4.4.3应设置专用配件库房和橡胶件空调库房,库房温度应满足配件及橡胶件储藏要求。 4.4.3 Wellsite shall have specified component storeroom and rubber element storeroom with air conditioners respectively. The temperature of storerooms shall meet storage requirements of components and rubber elements.
4.4.4各油气田应制定欠平衡钻井特殊井控作业设备的管理、使用和维修制度。 4.4.4 All oil and gas companies and contractors shall have management, utilization and maintenance systems for special well control equipment of under-balanced drilling.
5钻开油气层前的准备和检查验收 5 Preparation and Inspection prior to drilling in pay zone
5.1应加强地层对比,及时提出可靠的地质预报,在进人油气层前50m-100m,应按照下步钻井的设计最高钻井液密度值,对裸眼地层进行承压能力检验。 5.1 Pay attention to formation comparison, and provide reliable geologic forecast in time. 50m - 100m before drilling in the pay zone, the operator shall determine the maximum drilling fluid density based on the drilling design, and inspect the pressure bearing capacity of the open hole formation.
5.2调整井应指定专人按要求检查邻近注水、注气(汽)井停注、泄压情况。 5.2 For adjustment wells, there shall be designated personnel to check the situation of injection suspension and pressure release of the offset water, gas (steam) injection wells.
5.3日费井由钻井监督、大包井由钻井队技术人员向钻井现场所有工作人员进行工程、地质、钻井液、井控装置和并控措施等方面的技术交底,并提出具体要求。 5.3 The drilling supervisor (for day rate wells),and drilling engineers(for turn-key wells) shall present detail technical requirements and explanations to all parties on site about engineering geology, drilling fluid, well control equipment and well control measures.
5.4以班组为单位,落实井控责任制。作业班每月应进行不少于一次不同工况的防喷演习,其关井操作程序见附录B和附录C。 5.4 Execute the well control responsibility system. Each operating shift shall perform at least one BOP drill under different situations per month. Refer Annexes B and C for shut-in procedures. 
钻进作业和空井状态应在3min内控制住井口,起下钻作业状态应在5min内控制住井口,并将演习情况记录于“防喷演习记录表”中,参见附录D。 Under situations of drilling operation and the well is empty, the well shall be controlled within 3min, and under tripping, within 5min. Record BOP drills in "BOP Drill Report" (refer to Annex D). 
此外,在各次开钻前、特殊作业(取心、测试、完井作业等)前,都应进行防喷演习,达到合格要求。 In addition, before each time of resuming drilling after casings were cemented, and special operations (coring, DST and completion etc), BOP drills shall be qualified.
5.5钻井队应组织全队职工进行防火演习,含硫地区钻井还应进行防硫化氢演习,并检查落实各方面安全预防工作,直至合格为止。 5.5 The drilling crew shall organize firefighting drills, and H2S drills are also necessary for operating in H2S area. Check all precaution measures.
5.6强化钻井队干部在生产作业区24h轮流值班制度,负责检查、监督各岗位严格执行井控岗位责任制,发现问题立即督促整改。要求: 5. 6 The watch-on shift system shall be executed by crew managers strictly on site. These managers shall inspect and monitor the execution of well control post responsibility system. The detailed requirements are
a)值班干部应在进人油气层前loom开始挂牌值班,并认真填写值班干部交接班记录; a) Cre w managers on duty are to wear his duty badge and to fill out the shift record since 100 meters above the pay zone;
b)井控装置试压,防喷演习,处理溢流、井喷及井下复杂等情况,值班干部应在现场组织指挥。 b) Cre w managers on duty are to organize and supervise BOP pressure tests, BOP drills, overflow and well blowout control, relief of down-hole problems.
5.7应建立“坐岗”制度,定专人、定点观察溢流显示和循环池液面变化,定时将观察情况记录于“坐岗记录表”中,参见附录E。 5.7 Establish drilling fluid watch-on system, and there shall be designated personnel at specified positions to watch overflow indicators and pit volume changes in drilling fluid tanks. Fill up "Drilling Fluid Watch-on Report" (refer to Annex E).
5.8应检查所有井控装置、电路和气路的安装是否符合规定,功能是否正常,发现问题及时整改。 5.8 Check if all well control equipment, electricity circuits and air circuits conform to regulations, and if they function well. If there are problems, rectify immediately
5.9应按设计要求储备足够的加重钻井液和加重材料,并对储备加重钻井液定期循环处理。 5.9 Enough weighted drilling fluid and weighting materials shall be reserved based on the drilling design. Circulate the reserved weighted drilling fluid regularly.
5.10钻井队应通过全面自检,确认准备工作就绪后,向上级主管部门(钻井公司和油气田分公司所属二级单位相关部门)汇报自检情况,并申请检查验收 5.10 With all items checked and preparations verified, drilling crew shall report to the authorized department in details and apply for inspection.
5.11 检查验收组应由钻井公司和油气田分公司所属二级单位相关部门有关人员组成,按标准进行检查验收工作。 5.11 The inspection group consists of relative personnel from drilling company and operators and contractors. The inspection shall conform to relative specifications
5.12 检查验收情况记录于“钻开油气层检查验收证书”中,参见附录F;如存在井控隐患应当场下达“井控停钻通知书”,参见附录G.钻井队按“井控停钻通知书”限期整改。 5.12 Inspection results shall be filled into "Inspection Certificate for Drilling Pay Zone" (refer to Annex F) .If unqualified, the crew will receive a "Rig Shutdown Notification due to Well Control Problems" (refer to Annex G). 
检查合格并经检查人员在检查验收书上签字,由双方二级单位主管生产技术的领导或其委托人签发“钻开油气层批准书”后,方可钻开油气层,参见附录Ho The crew shall rectify in accordance with the notification. If qualified, the crew will receive a "Permission for drilling pay zone" issued by representatives of the operator and contractor (refer to Annex H) Then, pay zone drilling can begin.

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